Byzantine Alternate History Chapter IV- Constans II Relocates the Imperial Capital to Sicily

Posted by Powee Celdran

DISCLAIMER: Although this is mostly a work of fiction, it is largely based on true events and characters. It seeks to alter the course of actual events that transpired in the 7th century AD. This story will begin with events that have happened in real history but will become fictional as it progresses.

Previous Story: Byzantine Alternate History Chapter III- 6th Century

I call on you to be advisors and judges for the common welfare of our subjects.” -Emperor Constans II, 641AD

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Welcome to the 4th chapter of the Byzantine Alternate History series by the Byzantium Blogger! Last time, in chapter III, I discussed the reign of the Byzantine Empire’s most influential and most remembered emperor Justinian I the Great and his reign in the 6th century when the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) at its golden age was also at its greatest territorial extent. However, being too massive ruling the entire Mediterranean again as a “Roman lake”, it was far too stretched and left far too exposed for enemies to attack on all sides, most notably their traditional enemy in the east, the Sassanid Persian Empire. In the previous story however, I went with the what if scenario of Justinian I saving his empire and preserving its stability for many more centuries to come by sending the devastating plague that hit his empire in 542 east over to the Sassanids resulting in their total destruction, and at the same time the what if of Justinian himself personally going to his own military campaign in Italy to restore it to imperial rule and training his own nephew and successor Justin II to be a strong ruler just like him. However, since the stories in this alternate history series are not continuous with each other, this story will go with the course of events in real history meaning that after Justinian died in 565, the plague was still present in the Byzantine Empire, the economy ruined from all the wars and the plague, the Sassanid Empire in the east still alive and strong, and Justinian’s successor Justin II coming to the throne as a not so competent emperor. The main part of this story where the course of history will change happens a full century after Justinian’s reign, therefore unfamiliar territory for me as I still have much to discover about this era of Byzantium, and here the Byzantine Empire ruled by Emperor Constans II would literally be a shell of its former self, compared to the glorious state it was in under Justinian I. Here in the mid-7th century, Byzantium being devastated from total war, first against the Sassanids and afterwards against a new enemy being the Arabs, it had lost more than 50% of the lands it gained under Justinian and now has to fight on the defensive against the rapidly expanding Arab Caliphate, in which the Byzantines for the longest time never knew would pose such a threat to their existence. Now Justinian’s legacy in the cathedral of the Hagia Sophia which he had constructed in the imperial capital Constantinople and his code of laws known as the Corpus Juris Civilis which he commissioned may have lived long beyond his time, but his legacy in expanding the empire in terms of land did not last long and in the latter half of the 6th century and early 7th century, all his hard work in restoring the old Roman Empire through conquests had begun to fall apart. For instance, after Justinian’s death, Italy which had just recently been put under Byzantine rule quickly began falling to a new Germanic enemy invading from the north which were the Lombards, Byzantine Southern Spain slowly began falling back to the Visigoth Kingdom in the north, the Avars and Slavs began frequently raiding the Byzantine Balkans, and the threat of the Sassanids in the east resuming in full scale wars, and the worst part was that the Byzantine treasury was growing increasingly empty. The hard times for Byzantium then began in 602 when the last emperor of Justinian’s dynasty, Maurice was dethroned and executed by his army which resulted in chaos reigning in Byzantium allowing the Sassanids to now invade imperial territory to the point of coming right outside Constantinople! In 610, Heraclius who would be another strong and decisive emperor came to the throne to save the empire and true enough by 628 he was able to finish off the Sassanid threat once and for all by winning the great war against them which totally fractured the Sassanid Empire, and though the Byzantines here had won, years of war weakened the empire and its economy that one more war could result in Byzantium’s total annihilation. As for the Byzantines, little did they know that the war with the Sassanids was not yet the end, and little did they know that the new deadly threat to them would come from the Arab people from the deserts of the south, who the Byzantines never had thought would ever be much of a threat. Apparently, the disunited Arab tribes of the southern deserts in the early 7th century had all united under the new religion of Islam to form an empire or Caliphate and began expanding north beyond Arabia to conquer both the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires to spread Islam by the sword, and for them the Byzantine capital Constantinople was the ultimate prize. Now, the sudden rise and expansion of the Arab tribes of the desert becoming the Rashidun Caliphate was one of history’s most unexpected moments, but at the same time it was also expected that the Byzantines would lose a great amount of their imperial holdings in the east, most notably all of Egypt and Syria to the Arabs very quickly as the previous war with the Sassanids heavily devastated the Byzantine forces and facing a powerful and swift enemy like the Arabs, the Byzantines could not stand a chance but at least with the Byzantines being able to adapt to these challenging times by coming up with new kinds of military and administrative systems and secret superweapons like Greek Fire, they survived the expansion of the Arabs whereas the Sassanid Empire that had fallen into civil war after the great war with Byzantium stood no chance and was soon enough entirely absorbed into the Arab Caliphate by 651. The main part and climax of this story will then be on the 27-year reign of Constans II (641-668), the grandson of Heraclius who in 641 at only 11 inherits an empire that fell into a war with the Arabs and already at a breaking point. Unlike emperors Justinian I and Heraclius whose reigns and achievements remained well remembered long after their time, Constans II’s does not and remains one of Byzantium’s most underrated emperors despite achieving a lot as emperor and so much happening in his reign as it was under him when the course of Byzantine history had been drastically changing. For instance, it was under Constans II when the Byzantine Empire in an instant lost a large amount of territories most of them being important ones like Egypt and Syria, it was also under Constans II when Byzantium began its shift from Latin to Greek culturally and linguistically, and most importantly it was under Constans II when the new administrative system of Byzantium’s provinces known as the Thematic System was introduced whereas the Byzantines now having to fight constantly on the defensive against the expanding Arabs from the east while at the same time losing large amounts of land had to adapt to the situation, and this meant reducing their provinces in size thus creating smaller military provinces called Themes to increase military presence. Under Constans II, the major shift in the course of Byzantine history took place as it was here where they would now for the next 2 more centuries to come have to fight on the defensive to protect their empire from the ambitious conquests of the Arabs and in these difficult times, Byzantium had to adapt by coming up with all sorts of creative ideas for their survival including the creation of Thematic System- which you will learn more about how it works when reading this- to make their defenses easier, and creating weapons like Greek Fire, a naval superweapon that was to remain a Byzantine state secret, and yes these new solutions the Byzantines came up with in these difficult times did prove effective enough in allowing the Byzantine Empire to live on through these hard times and eventually by the 9th century rise up again to counter-attack the Arabs. As for Constans II on the other hand, others may remember him as the emperor that met a very odd end being killed by a servant using a soap dish when bathing, but in the story of his death that took place in the city of Syracuse of Sicily, Constans II did indeed have some kind of secret intention which was to move the Byzantine Empire’s capital to Sicily seeing Constantinople was far too vulnerable to the Arab attacks and having Syracuse as the new capital was more effective as its location was central in the Mediterranean and could help in further defending the Mediterranean and taking back lands such as Egypt and North Africa that were lost to the expanding Arab Caliphate. Now, I actually think here that Constans II did really intend to move west as he was looking to further defend the Mediterranean from the Arabs while at the same time I also see that he had also cared about the west and Byzantium’s Roman heritage, therefore this makes him and not Justinian the last Roman emperor to have some kind of connection to the west and Rome, considering that the Byzantine emperors despite ruling from the east were still considered Roman emperors. This article will be another long and complex one as it covers the very crucial 7th century and the worlds of the Byzantines, Arab Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates, Sassanid Persians, and even the Tang Chinese Empire but a lot of it will focus on Emperor Constans II’s reign and his decision to move the imperial capital to Syracuse being the last Byzantine emperor that still cared about Byzantium’s western roots, but the real question here is that if Constans II moved the Byzantine capital to Syracuse, could this really change the course of Byzantine history?

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Flag of the Byzantine Empire

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Note: Since this story is set in the 7th century after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine characters will be now referred to as Byzantines, not Romans.

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The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent by 555 under Emperor Justinian I the Great

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The Byzantine Empire in 650 (orange) under Constans II

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Map of the expansion of the Islamic Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates (622-750)



Here, in chapter IV of my Byzantine Alternate History series, I am writing the story alone this time basing it on historical facts from 7th century Byzantine history and coming up with my own plots for the characters of the story. Most of the story will be relying on historical facts with an intense amount of research and info from the History of Byzantium Podcast and Youtube channels Kings and Generals and Thersites the Historian, as well as other history related media online and books. However, when we get to the year 668, the year Constans II was killed in his bath in Syracuse, rather than going with the course of real history wherein Constans II met his end at the baths, this story will take a different turn whereas Constans II survived and would continue to build up the empire’s Mediterranean defense, as well as continue his war against the Arab forces of the Umayyad Caliphate.

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Coin of Emperor Constans II (r. 641-668)

Although before getting to this story’s climax of Constans II’s fate in 668 wherein he avoids it, it is important to give some context to the story by discussing the background of the plot of the rise of the Byzantine-Arab conflict which will take us all the way back to Byzantium in the late 6th century following Justinian I’s death. This story then will have a long background section that will discuss Byzantium after Justinian, the total war against the Sassanids, the emperor Maurice, the take-over and failed reign of the emperor Phocas, the rise and achievements of Emperor Heraclius, the great war against the Sassanid Empire known also as the “Final Byzantine-Sassanid War” and the Sassanids’ defeat, and the sudden rise of the Arabs and expansion of Islam since it would be difficult to understand the Byzantine Empire of Constans II without knowing about how Byzantium changed so much before his time. Once the background of the story and its conflict is explained in the historical context, this article will proceed to the turbulent reign of Constans II from 641 to 668, and then to the climax of the story wherein things will take a totally fictional shift. This story will then proceed and finish off with the reign of Constans II’s son Constantine IV (668-681) with the first Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674 and the invention of the superweapon Greek Fire despite Constans II still alive, except here in this case after 668 the Byzantine Empire would be split in half to be able to fully defend all its borders properly whereas Constans II would rule permanently from the west in Syracuse while his young son Constantine IV would rule from the east in Constantinople. Now Constans II for me is one of Byzantium’s most underrated yet very important emperors as like mentioned earlier, he ruled Byzantium in a very crucial time when the empire had suddenly downsized in land and population as a large percent was lost to the Arabs, therefore it was in his reign where many important reforms and changes were introduced which would last for many centuries to come such as the introduction of the Thematic System and the shift from Latin to Greek in language and culture which would be the new standard for Byzantium from here onwards with the Latin language and Roman identity of the past slowly but significantly disappearing as for instance, the imperial court began using Greek as the language of administration. Other than the creation of Byzantium’s Theme System that would be the standard of the empire’s governance for many centuries to come, Constans II’s reign was one with many significant moments which included sending an embassy to the Tang Empire of China, almost getting killed in a naval battle against the Arabs, arresting the pope, travelling the empire personally, leading battles himself, settling in Syracuse as if it were the empire’s new capital, and getting assassinated in his bath by a soap dish. Now, the 7th century was a very crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium as this was when the empire entered a somewhat dystopian setting which would be its “Dark Ages” where it drastically downsized, therefore losing the imperial power and prestige it had as the all-powerful empire it was from its beginnings in the 4th century to the age of Justinian in the 6th century and also, it was the time when the purpose of war for the Byzantines shifted from one for territory to holy war to defend Christianity, first against the Zoroastrian Sassanid Persians in the first half of the 7th century and against the Muslim Arabs in the 2nd half; and it would not only be the Byzantines fighting for faith but the Arabs too as their purpose for expanding was to spread Islam. This story in the 7th century thus will only be the beginning of the wars the Byzantines would have against Islam which they would fight against till the very end in 1453, while this story too will be the beginning of the Byzantines vs Arabs and Dark Ages phase, which the next 2 chapters of this series will cover. As for creating a what if story for 7th century Byzantium since each century in Byzantium’s history gets one story in this series, I could have done more popular ones such as if the war against the Sassanids from 602 to 628 had not happened, if the Arab expansion never happened, if Emperor Heraclius lost to the Sassanids, or if Heraclius successfully beat the Arabs, but instead I chose to go deeper into the 7th century and deeper into the Byzantine-Arab conflict, therefore into the complex reign of Constans II as in this alternate history series, I usually like to go for lesser known emperors and events, and this article will do just that. Of course, the more popular events of the 7th century like the reign of Heraclius and his wars against the Sassanids and later with the Arabs will play a large role in this story giving a background to Constans II and the situation of the empire he ruled, and considering Constans II is the grandson of the more famous Byzantine emperor Heraclius, it is impossible to not discuss the heroic yet tragic reign of Heraclius. Now for the main character of the story, I chose Constans II (real name: Heraclius Constantine) who I would consider a very complex person as I always find stories that center on a flawed, unlikeable, and mean-spirited protagonists very interesting and Emperor Constans II is no exception for this kind of character. Unlike the other protagonists I chose for the previous 3 stories like Valentinian I, Anthemius, and Justinian who I portrayed as rather likeable characters, Constans II here as the lead character is the opposite, and just as he is recorded in history to have ruled, Constans II here will be portrayed as a young mean-spirited emperor ruling with an iron fist, purging all those who opposed him including family members and even the pope, and falling out with his family which is why I would also say he left for 5 years to settle in Sicily, never to return again. As an emperor, Constans II too would be his grandfather Heraclius’ polar opposite as Heraclius is usually portrayed in a heroic fashion being Byzantium’s savior from incompetence and tyranny and from the ultimate destruction of the Sassanids yet at the same time as a tragic hero as even though he achieved so much in finally putting an end to the constant war against the Sassanids, he did live long enough to die a broken man unable to stop the new Arab threat while his grandson Constans II is usually and here will be seen as an unlikeable autocratic ruler in which others may know him as “Constans the Bearded” or the “Bearded Autocrat”- as he is depicted  in his coin to have a large beard- and although tyrannical as an emperor and not very effective in religious and foreign policy, he was not incompetent and was actually a visionary with some good intentions for the survival of his empire which is why he introduced the Theme System- though historical sources aren’t that clear about if he exactly created them- and thought of relocating the imperial capital seeing he could use that as a base to save the threatened western provinces. Constans II too being part of the Heraclian Dynasty founded by his grandfather Heraclius would also be the one to set the standard of his dynasty’s ruling style as strong autocratic rulers in which this kind of ruling style Constans II had would be seen with his son Constantine IV as you will also see here, and with Constantine IV’s son Justinian II (r. 685-695) who would be this dynasty’s last emperor, and it was also here at this point in time with Byzantium under the Heraclian emperors wherein you would no longer see powerful women running the empire like in the 5th and 6th centuries, instead you will notice that the 7th century was a time for strong young men running the empire such as Constans II, Constantine IV, and Justinian II with women no longer having a major part in the political scene. This story too will not be the kind of black and white story wherein the Byzantines are all good and their enemies like the Arabs all bad, instead it will be a very gray one as its lead character Constans II despite being the hero of the story will be somewhat villainous in nature as a result of the difficult situation the empire was facing as he grew up, but with actually good intentions therefore being an anti-villain with a complete character arc, while the Arabs on the other hand like Constans II’s arch-enemy Caliph Muawiyah I would not be seen as pure villains even if this story is told through the Byzantine perspective, as true enough the Arab Caliphate’s intention was just to expand and conquer in the name of Islam without any bad intentions yet they had actually been tolerant as rulers at times, thus this story too will do justice to the Arabs who are usually seen as the villains in other stories. At the same time, this story too will give you a full picture of the world of the 7th century by not only telling the story of Constans II but of the collapse of Byzantium’s long-time mortal enemy, the Sassanid Empire wherein the Arabs would replace them as the new traditional enemy, the relations of Byzantium with the distant Tang Dynasty Empire of China at this time, the continuation of the endless headache of religious debates and schisms, the introduction of Byzantium’s Theme System which would prove effective in the empire’s survival, the Byzantine Exarchates, the development of Greek Fire, and the ultimate change in the course of Byzantine history from fighting to conquer lands to fighting on the defensive. Of course, in order to be more interesting for a wider range of viewers, this story would not focus too heavily on the endless religious debates of the time and the political situation of the empire, but rather more on the happenings of the time including the wars and power struggles in which Byzantium would also be forever remembered for. Although at the same time, this story will be one that is more centered on the empire and its political and geographic situation rather than on characters, but the characters and their stories like of Constans II will play a major part too.

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Emperor Constans II of Byzantium, black and white illustration, art by Powee Celdran

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Guide to the Heraclian Dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, 610-695 (covered heavily in this story)

Related Articles from The Byzantium Blogger:

Byzantine Alternate History Chapter III- The Empire Strikes Back

Byzantine History for Everyday People- Reactions to Quotes from Byzantium

Around the World in the Byzantine Era- Part I (330-1000)

12 Turning Points in Byzantine History

The Art of War in the Byzantine World

A Guide to the Themes of the Byzantine Empire

The Sieges of Constantinople

Lesser Known and Would be Roman and Byzantine Emperors (27BC-695AD)

Related Videos to this era:

Constans II the Bearded (Thersites the Historian)

Early Muslim Expansion- Yarmouk and Al-Qadisiyah (Kings and Generals)

Constans II: Struggle for Survival (Eastern Roman History)

The Byzantine Empire, 565-602 (Dovahhatty)

The Great-Byzantine Sassanid War, 602-630 (Dovahhatty)


The Leading Characters:

Constans II- Byzantine emperor

Constantine IV- Son and heir of Constans II

Theodore I Calliopas- Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna

Mizizios- Byzantine general, Komes of the Opsikion Theme

Muawiyah I- 1st Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate

Heraclius- Son of Constans II and co-emperor

Tiberius- Son of Constans II and co-emperor 

Fausta- Byzantine empress, wife of Constans II, mother of Constantine IV, Heraclius, and Tiberius

Theodosius- Twin brother of Constans II

Kallinikos of Heliopolis- Byzantine engineer, inventor of Greek Fire

Paul II- Patriarch of Constantinople

Pope Martin I- Patriarch of Rome 

Saborios- Byzantine general, Strategos of the Armeniac Theme

Yazid- Arab general, son of Muawiyah I

Peroz- Last heir of the Sassanid Empire in exile, Persian general in China

*Alexios- Byzantine senator and diplomat sent to China (real character with not much of a story, his story is expanded here)

*Philippikos- Byzantine senator and diplomat sent to China (real character with not much of a story, his story is expanded here)

Gaozong- Tang emperor of China

(Credits to AmelianvsSkamandros, Gambargin, Ahmed AbuElnaga, Marwan Musa, Sergio-Quijada, and Giuseppe Rava for their art on this era which are featured here.)

Background Guide: Byzantine characters (blue), Latin west (light blue), Arabs (yellow), Sassanids (green), Chinese (red-orange). 


The Background- From Justinian I to Heraclius (565-630)

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On November 14, 565 died the most influential ruler of the Byzantine Empire, Justinian I the Great who had ruled for a total of 38 years coming to power back in 527 and with him died the golden age. Under Justinian I, the Byzantines came to rule the entire Mediterranean by conquering North Africa from the Vandal Kingdom, Italy from the Ostrogoth Kingdom, and Southern Spain from the Visigoth Kingdom and though the Vandals and Ostrogoths were destroyed under Justinian I, the Visigoth Kingdom still lived on in Spain as only the south was put under Byzantine rule and despite these conquests, the might of Byzantium was weakened. Certainly, Justinian’s imperial conquests of the former Western Roman provinces needed funds and though the dream to reconquer these provinces had been achieved, the treasury ran low due to all the wars fought to reclaim these lands considering the war to retake all of Italy spanned almost 20 years.

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Icon of Emperor St. Justinian the Great (r. 527-565)

The worst part however was the plague that struck the Byzantine Empire so severely in 542 that killed 1/3 of the empire’s population and as a result of all the deaths crippled the economy, but even though all this happened, Justinian I was able to put the entire Mediterranean under Byzantine rule and die at least knowing he was able to fulfil his ultimate dream despite never even taking part in his own conquests, but instead staying his entire reign in Constantinople. Though Justinian I died with his ultimate dream of reconquest achieved, little did he know that shortly after his death, all his hard work would fall apart and a lot of this would be due to the leadership of his nephew and successor Justin II (r. 565-578) as Justinian in fact never properly trained a successor and never had children of his own with his wife Theodora and following Theodora’s death in 548, the devastated Justinian vowed to never marry again, and little did he know that this would be a terrible decision. Justin II inherited from his uncle a massive empire that controlled the entire Mediterranean but no matter how large it was in territory, he lacked the vision and strong administrative skills his uncle had, and the Byzantine Empire Justinian I left behind to Justin II had an economy ruined by the plague and wars, and having an empty treasury while facing enemies on all borders particularly the Avars across the Danube border in the Balkans allying with the Slavic tribes there making attempts to cross the river and settle in Byzantine lands.

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Emperor Justin II of Byzantium (r. 565-578), nephew and successor of Justinian I

The Avars now had been making raids into the Danube borders of Byzantium ever since Justinian I’s reign but part of Justinian’s policy was to pay off the Avars and their allies, the Slavs (Sclaveni in Latin, Sklabenoi in Greek) to stay where they are and not attack but when becoming emperor, Justin II seeing the treasury was too empty to continue paying the Avars annual tribute decided to stop paying tribute, therefore making them raid with full force into the Byzantine Balkans with their Slav allies to find land to settle down and farm; the Avars here fought as cavalry and the Slavs as infantry. As for Byzantine Italy which had just been entirely conquered from the Ostrogoth Kingdom, the wars and plague left it as a depopulated wasteland and due to pressure from the Avar hordes in Central Europe, the Germanic tribe of the Lombards led by their king Alboin migrated south to look for land as prior to this, some Lombards have already served as mercenaries for the Byzantines in their previous wars to conquer Italy from the Ostrogoths.

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Lombards cross into Italy in 568, art by Giuseppe Rava

When hearing about how the war turned Byzantine Italy into a depopulated wasteland, Alboin saw this as an opportunity to settle in Italy thus he led a large number of men invading Byzantine Italy in 568 meeting very little resistance as not that many troops were left to defend Italy as a result of the deaths from the previous war against the Ostrogoths and in such a short amount of time, the Lombards were able to take over half of Italy leaving only the major cities of Ravenna, Rome, and Naples as well as the south to the Byzantines. In the eastern border of the Byzantine Empire on the other hand, ever since 562 Justinian I agreed to a truce with their mortal enemy, the Sassanid Persian Empire ruled by Shah Khosrow I, King of Kings though the amount of money to be paid off to the Sassanids as tribute was soon to be impossible with the Byzantine state now critically running out of funds, and again like what Justin II decided to do with the Avars, in 572 he decided to stop the annual tribute to the Sassanids, therefore resuming war and this time to an even more severe level wherein the Sassanids had the upper hand making them able to seize some of Byzantine territory in Syria, including the strategic fortress of Dara at the border.

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Avar cavalry (left) and Slav infantry (right)

The resumption of the war against the Sassanids and the defeat of the Byzantine forces to them as well as the pressure of running such a massive yet fractured empire in 573 made Justin II break down and lose his sanity, memory, and confidence that he so believed had that soon enough he became unfit to rule. The historian of that time John of Ephesus mentions that Justin II cried out loud animal sounds, hid under his bed, and tried to jump off the window that his wife the empress Sophia had to install bars on his windows so that he wouldn’t jump off. It was even said that Justin II bit court attendants and bodyguards that the bite marks on them made people believe he was a cannibal; and to be calmed down, Justin II had to be on a mobile throne with the sound of soothing organ music playing day and night. Finally in 574, Justin II was convinced by Sophia to abdicate, leave the palace, and rule in name only and appoint his friend and commander of the palace guard or Comes Excubitorum the Thracian Tiberius to run the empire not as Caesar while Justin II still ruled as Augustus or senior emperor, now Tiberius would be the first Byzantine emperor from here on to primarily speak Greek. Justin II then adopted Tiberius as his son and heir despite them being the same age here (54) as a way to continue the Justinian Dynasty as Justin and Sophia had no sons, and from here on Tiberius would be the one effectively running the empire cleaning up the mess Justin II left behind which included continuing the defense of Italy against the Lombards and campaigning against the Sassanids in the east to push them back, though the campaigns were left to their generals as Tiberius like Justin II and Justinian I before him again ruled as a palace emperor though luckily one day, out of chance Tiberius discovered tons of gold in his new house in Constantinople which was the house of the late Narses, the eunuch general of Justinian I who had died in 573 and apparently Narses had been keeping a large amount of gold for himself and having no children to inherit the wealth, it was passed on to the state. As Caesar, Tiberius made good use of Narses’ hidden wealth spending it generously on public entertainment to make his people happy, buying his way to peace by resuming paying tribute to the Avars and Sassanids, and recruiting tens of thousands of locals from the Balkans and Asia Minor to the army as well using the funds to hire thousands of foreign mercenaries.

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Tiberius II Constantine, Palace Guard Commander, and successor of Justin II (r. 578-582)

In 578, Justin II had died and Tiberius II adding “Constantine” to his name now ruled as the empire’s sole Augustus though Empress Sophia considering marrying him to continue ruling herself as the Augusta or empress but Tiberius already having a wife refused and banished Sophia from the imperial court and now as emperor, Tiberius would at least rule more competently than Justin II but still lacking the abilities, enthusiasm, and vision of Justinian I but still, Tiberius II was popular with the masses as he relaxed taxes and had managed to keep the fractured empire together by keeping the Avars across the Danube away, containing the Lombard threat in Italy by paying off the Franks of Gaul to distract the Lombards by attacking them from the north, and managed to continue making a truce with Khosrow I’s Sassanid Empire. In the Sassanid Empire in 579, the old shah Khosrow I died and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV who had certainly wanted to continue the war with the Byzantines and with the peace with Sassanids over again, Tiberius here decided to again face off the Sassanids at war and luckily, he had appointed a competent general to lead the campaign against the Sassanids which was the Cappadocian Greek Maurice– formerly Tiberius’ secretary and the palace guard commander since 574 succeeding Tiberius to this position- who in 580 successfully marched the army deep into Sassanid territory as far as Iraq pushing back the Sassanid army.

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Sassanid Empire flag

However, Tiberius II having pulled out troops from the Balkans in order to launch the Sassanid campaign left the Balkans defenseless allowing the Avars and Slavs to continue their raids facing little resistance to the point of taking over the important city of Sirmium (in today’s Serbia) from the Byzantines. By 582, the conflict with the Sassanids was more or less settled allowing Tiberius to continue focusing on the threat of the Avars in the Balkans and not wanting to resume war against them, Tiberius again agreed to pay tribute to them as well as to formally cede the city of Sirmium to the Avars and Slavs but in return the Avars and Slavs destroyed Sirmium when it was given to them. It was also in 582 when Tiberius II Constantine died at 62 most possibly from food poisoning, though it also rumored he was poisoned but when dying he named Maurice his successor saying to Maurice “make your reign my finest epitaph”.  

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Start of the Lombard invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568, Lombard lands (blue), Byzantines (orange)

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Imperial court of the mentally insane Justin II (seated) with Empress Sophia (left) and Tiberius II as Caesar (right), by Amelianvs

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Byzantine Sirmium, ceded to the Avars and Slavs in 582

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Slavs attack Byzantine Sirmium, 582

Here in 582 at the age of 43, the general Maurice after marrying Tiberius II’s daughter Constantia came to rule the empire and would prove to be a competent and worthy emperor with a vision, another one of who primarily spoke Greek, and the first Byzantine emperor since Theodosius I (r. 379-395) 2 centuries earlier- with the exception of Zeno (r. 474-491)- to personally lead the armies in battle as many of his predecessors, most notably Justinian I never led the armies in battle, instead only giving orders to generals to do the job, and here Maurice would set a new standard for emperors to lead their troops in battle. The loss of Sirmium to the Avars and Slavs was a heavy blow to the prestige of the empire giving Maurice a reason to continue the war with them which he did, though this ended in total disaster that he had to again continue paying off tribute to them which therefore began bankrupting the empire more and more.

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Maurice, Byzantine emperor (r. 582-602)

Other than that, as Maurice having a vision to save and rebuild the strong empire Justinian before him planned to have, he looked into the matter in Italy that was under attack by the Lombards, North Africa threatened by the Berber tribes of the Sahara Desert, and Byzantine territory in Southern Spain slowly being taken back by the Visigoths, and here he decided to create two semi-autonomous provinces to further protect the provinces too distant from Constantinople. These two semi-autonomous provinces Maurice had created were known as the Exarchates which were to be ruled by an Exarch or a semi-autonomous governor with almost the same authority as the emperor himself but still answering directly to the emperor, and these Exarchates will play an important role in this story. In 584 the Exarchate of Ravenna was created which was to rule all of the remains of Byzantine Italy as a way to continue in the effort of containing the Lombards as Maurice being too busy dealing with problems in the east and the Balkans at the same time did not have the time and neither could not split himself in half to focus on problems on all sides, therefore he left Italy under the care of an appointed Exarch based in Ravenna, the Byzantine capital of Italy. In 585, it was Byzantine North Africa’ turn to become a Byzantine Exarchate based in Byzantine North Africa’s capital Carthage and here the North African provinces as well as Sardinia and Corsica, and the remains of Byzantine territory in Southern Spain fell under the Exarchate of Africa as again Maurice had no time to focus on the problems there, but at least he still cared to keep these lands that Justinian worked so hard to conquer for the empire. Not to mention, it was also during Maurice’s reign when the fertile lands of Byzantine North Africa outside Carthage (Tunisia and Algeria) due to over-farming and climate change began to dry up turning more and more into a desert, therefore limiting the abundant grain supply for the empire which came from these lands. Meanwhile in the Sassanid Empire, due to the heavy defeat they faced earlier under Maurice’s hands, the shah Hormizd IV was enraged that his general Bahram Chobin lost a number of times to the Byzantines, thus Hormizd IV to remind Bahram of his failures gave him a gift of a woman’s dress as a direct insult. Feeling insulted by his king, Bahram in 590 rebelled against Hormizd IV, and when Sassanid troops loyal to Bahram in the Sassanid capital Ctesiphon killed Hormizd, Bahram then became Shah Bahram VI making Hormizd IV’s son and Khosrow I’s grandson Khosrow II flee into Byzantine territory. Maurice was then given an offer by the young Khosrow II who promised to give him some lands back in exchange for an alliance while the Bahram promised Maurice more land in exchange for an alliance, and torn between the two, Maurice considered allying with Khosrow as he was of the Sassanid imperial family while Bahram was just a usurper. Khosrow II in 591 with with military aid from Maurice returned to Ctesiphon, dethroned and killed Bahram VI, and successfully regained the throne, therefore resuming peace with the Byzantines promising not to attack as Maurice helped him regain the throne.

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Khosrow II, Shah of the Sassanid Empire (r. 591-628)

With the peace once again signed with the Sassanid Empire as well as Byzantine lands in Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor previously conquered by the Sassanids returned to Byzantine control, Maurice now focused on continuing the war with the Avars and Slavs in the Balkans and maintaining diplomatic relations with the neighboring kingdoms of the Caucasus as well as with the Arab tribes of the deserts in the far south, but little did he know that they would one day erupt as a total threat to the Byzantines. At this time, as Maurice continued fighting his wars against the Avars and Slavs in the Balkans and actually leading the army himself, his famous military manual known as the Strategikon was written and though it is debated if Maurice wrote it himself or if it was his brother Peter or some of his generals that wrote it, I would believe that it was actually Maurice himself since he had a lot of military experience and as an emperor was also a skilled and practical general.

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The Strategikon of Emperor Maurice

This military manual here is basically a guide on how to fight particular enemies the Byzantines had at this time whether Franks or Lombards, Avars or Slavs, Sassanids or other eastern enemies, and Nomadic horsemen from the distant steppes of Central Asia and this book discusses not only how to beat the enemy by learning their fighting styles but from learning about their culture and behavior as well, and a lot of the information for this book came from Byzantine spies sent to study these people. However, this book has not much mention about the Arabs from the south and their fighting styles as at this point, they were not in any way seen as a big threat but rather as disunited tribes without much capability in fighting, though the useful advice given here was when it came to fighting the Slavs, it was best to fight them during winter by camping across the Danube in order to contain them and prevent them from crossing as they were at their weakest during winter, but as it would turn out, this tip from the Strategikon would cause Maurice his downfall.

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Byzantine cavalry soldier in Maurice’s reign

In 602, before winter came, Maurice successfully led his forces in beating back the Avars and Slavs across the Danube and with this success, the army was ordered to camp across the Danube during winter while Maurice returned to the capital. From the beginning, Maurice was already unpopular with Constantinople’s people especially the elite for never being around that much in the capital to please them and for his weakness in economic policy which led to the empire’s near bankruptcy and across the Danube, it was his own army that came to despise him for making them live in harsh conditions at enemy territory especially since they were to do it during winter wherein the cold was much more brutal there than it was within Byzantine territory but more importantly, these soldiers began to rise up due to their lack of pay, although this was not Maurice’s fault as the empire’s treasury was already emptying out. The soldiers camped across the Danube then refused following orders and went in open revolt against Maurice and here their centurion or senior officer Phocas who had been spreading lies to the soldiers about Maurice planning to kill them all by forcing them to camp across the Danube was sent to march to Constantinople and overthrow Maurice in favor of Maurice’s son Theodosius who for the army was seen as a better choice. However, when Phocas arrived in Constantinople, the blue and green factions who were traditionally each other’s enemies united and rioted with support from the Byzantine Senate in favor of Phocas as their new emperor. With the unrest ongoing, Maurice with his family fled Constantinople across the narrow Bosporus Sea to Chalcedon on the Asian side but it was too late as when arriving there, they were caught by Phocas’ men although Maurice’s eldest son Theodosius was already sent away right in time to seek help from Khosrow II in the Sassanid Empire, though when caught, Maurice’s wife and daughters were banished to monastery while Maurice and his 5 sons as well as his brother Peter were all sentenced to death. Here on November 27, 602 at one of Constantinople’s harbors, Maurice witnessed his 5 sons beheaded in front of him before he himself was beheaded and when he and his sons were killed with Phocas as the new emperor overseeing the executions, the eldest son Theodosius escaped but was later found though spared and sent to live out his life in the neighboring Kingdom of Lazica (today’s Georgia) in the Caucasus. The execution of Maurice thus ended the Justinian Dynasty founded back in 518 by Justinian’s uncle Emperor Justin I (r. 518-527); some historians too use the event of Maurice’s execution in 602 as the end of antiquity and the Byzantine golden age and the start of the Dark Ages.

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Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (red), established in 584

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Byzantine Exarchate of Africa (red), established in 585

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Maurice’s troops across the Danube in 600, art by Amelianvs

The Byzantine Emperor Maurice about to be executed by the usurper Phocas, having seen his five children killed in front of him, 602
Execution of Emperor Maurice in 602, end of the Justinian Dynasty

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The Byzantine Empire in 600 (green) and Sassanid Empire (orange)

Watch this to learn more about the Strategikon of Emperor Maurice (Kings and Generals).

Following the execution of Emperor Maurice and his 5 sons, the 53-year-old centurion Phocas, a Greek speaking Thracian was now emperor but for taking over power by killing off Maurice and having no dynastic connections he was seen as a usurper. Phocas had no ties to Maurice or the Justinian Dynasty, therefore making him the first Byzantine emperor to usurp power without having any blood or familial connections with previous emperors, not even a lineage traced back to previous emperors, instead he was a simple and barely educated common soldier rising above the ranks and seizing complete control of the empire by force, though it still remains unclear why the senate still backed him.

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Emperor Phocas of Byzantium (r. 602-610)

Phocas though was married but had no children but as emperor and due to his lack of education, he lacked the skill to run an empire, and being a low-born usurper, he soon enough became a constant target of conspiracies by the elite of Constantinople. Meanwhile, when hearing of Maurice’s execution, the Sassanid shah Khosrow II broke his peace agreement with Byzantium and again declared war as a way to avenge Maurice who helped him come into power where in fact avenging Maurice’s memory was more of an excuse because with Maurice as emperor, Khosrow II would not dare attack Byzantine lands as Maurice backed him but with Maurice dead, Khosrow II who really did intend to conquer Byzantine lands had every reason to now invade and at the end of 602, a massive Sassanid campaign was launched against Byzantium. At the same time, the Sassanids now had their former vassal Arab Lakhmid Kingdom to their south absorbed into their empire as their own province, as well as the lands across the Persian Gulf (today’s Qatar, UAE, and Oman) being the Sassanid province of Mazun, while Yemen too at the southwest portion of the Arabian Peninsula was also made a Sassanid province, though both Yemen and Mazun were not connected to the main Sassanid Empire by land but with these lands already theirs, the Sassanid Persians were now to gain more by expanding west conquering Byzantine provinces. Now Phocas would be a great example of tyranny and incompetence as when he ruled, he primarily focused on eliminating the conspiracies targeted against him and executing all those who opposed him especially the remaining family members of Maurice and Maurice’s loyal generals, while Maurice’s wife Constantia and the daughters they had were all put to death in 605 when Constantia conspired against Phocas. All while Phocas busied himself getting rid of threats against him, little did he know that he left the Balkans even more exposed to the Avars and Slavs and true enough all of Maurice’s hard work to contain them was undone as these enemies raided deeper into the Balkans. Phocas when hearing of the Avars and Slavs’ raids decided to let them attack and not pay them off any tribute as the treasury too had already been emptied out, but the worst part was at the east, as when Phocas was too busy purging those who opposed him the Sassanids without much resistance penetrated deep into Byzantine Asia Minor as well as Syria, and Phocas seeing nothing could be done about it just let it happen. Soon enough, Phocas would lose support from the senate as they never wanted an incompetent usurper as emperor anyway while his most loyal top general Priscus– who was although a loyalist general of Maurice before being made one of Phocas’ top generals- too was accused of treason so in 608, Priscus fled Constantinople to the Exarchate of Africa to get the help of its exarch, the Armenian Heraclius the Elder in Carthage to overthrow Phocas as it turned out a lot of provincial governors had still been loyal to Maurice even if he was unpopular with the senate and elite of Constantinople, especially since a lot of the governors were those that were appointed by Maurice. Heraclius the Elder and his son Heraclius the Younger were no doubt Maurice loyalists especially since the elder was appointed as the first Exarch of Africa by Maurice himself and when Priscus arrived, both father and son were willing to openly rebel against Phocas that in Carthage they started minting coins with their faces and names and named themselves consuls too.

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Coin of Consuls in Carthage Heraclius the Elder and Heraclius the Younger

To fully kick start the rebellion, Heraclius the Younger set off to Egypt as his father was too old to journey therefore remaining in Carthage. Heraclius the Younger with his cousin Nicetas then seized Egypt for themselves in rebellion against Constantinople by cutting off the grain supply for the capital, therefore starving the people of Constantinople which was a sure move that turned them against Phocas who did not do anything to stop the rebellion. In 609, Heraclius the Younger then proceeded with his fleet to Greece and in 610 arrived in Constantinople and once the ship had docked in the harbor, the mob together with Priscus having already turned on Phocas in favor of Heraclius seized Phocas and severely beat him tearing off his robes, thus Phocas was brought to Heraclius whereas Heraclius questioned him “is this how you have ruled, scum?” and in return Phocas said “and will you rule better?” and being so enraged, Heraclius had Phocas beheaded and mutilated at the spot. Now here on October 5, 610, the 35-year-old Flavius Heraclius the Younger, a native Greek speaker of Armenian and Cappadocian Greek descent was crowned emperor who was yet to face a very heavy burden of ruling a damaged empire.

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Khosrow II’s Sassanid imperial court

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Heraclius the Younger overthrows and executes Phocas in 610, art by Amelianvs

          

The Byzantine Empire Heraclius came to rule in 610 was heavily fractured and threatened on all sides, first of all the Avars and Slavs raided even deeper into the Balkans, the Lombards still threatened Italy, and in the east the Sassanids had already captured Byzantine Mesopotamia (Southeastern Turkey) and Heraclius on the other hand who came to power by force was also seen as a usurper as he also had no connections to any of the previous dynasties except that his father was appointed Exarch of Africa by Maurice, though some time after 610, Heraclius the Elder would die at least knowing his son successfully took the throne.

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Heraclius the Younger, Byzantine emperor crowned in 610, art by Skamandros

Meanwhile the Sassanid shah Khosrow II when hearing Phocas had died and Heraclius took over still did not decide to end the war as the Sassanids were already gaining the upper hand and with Byzantium’s eastern borders left poorly defended under Phocas’ rule, the Sassanids led by their powerful and highly skilled and feared general Shahrbaraz– whose name meant “royal boar” although his real name is unclear- scored major victories that in 611 he captured the major city of Antioch itself from Byzantium, followed by the capture of Damascus in 613, and afterwards even Caesarea in Cappadocia in Asia Minor fell to the Sassanids which opened the way for the Sassanids to expand westwards to Constantinople. As for Heraclius, before becoming emperor he had married Fabia Eudokia, a patrician woman from North Africa and in 612 their first child who was to later be Emperor Constantine III was born but shortly after Constantine’s birth, Eudokia died and due to her popularity, the whole of Constantinople mourned at her funeral. With his first wife dead, Heraclius decided he needed to marry again in order to have more children and establish a legitimate ruling dynasty, though Heraclius had no choice but to marry his niece Martina, the daughter of his older sister Maria in 613. The marriage between Heraclius and Martina shocked the population of Constantinople and most especially the Church as it was definitely incestuous and illegal but they still married and Martina was still proclaimed Augusta by Heraclius and crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople Sergius I, who crowned Heraclius back in 610. The Byzantines again suffered a heavy blow to them in 614 when Jerusalem was captured by the Sassanids led by Shahrbaraz, and although Jerusalem and in its location had no strategic importance, as the holy city it did have a lot of spiritual importance and for the Byzantines, losing the city was a heavy loss that angered the people of the empire.

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Sassanid general Shahrbaraz, art by Gambargin

The Sassanids had turned out to favor the Jews over Christians and when capturing Jerusalem with the help of Jews upset about being treated as second class citizens by the Christians, they assigned these Jews to be in charge of the city over the Christians which definitely angered the Christians making them revolt against their Jewish and Sassanid Persian overlords, though the rebellion was brutally crushed by the Sassanid forces and as result of quelling the rebellion, the Sassanids looted the city and massacred a large number of Christians, taking away its most important relics as well including the True Cross wherein Jesus Christ himself was crucified in and many other relics from the time of Christ as well as the Jewish Menorah- which if you remember from the previous chapter was one of the spoils the Byzantines gained when capturing Carthage from the Vandals in 534 which was then returned to Jerusalem, its original place- over to the Sassanid capital, Ctesiphon. The looting of the relics of Jerusalem truly shocked the people of Constantinople who knowing the oppression of the Christians there were not only due to their Sassanid overlords but by their Jewish allies began having anti-Jewish sentiments that the Byzantine Christians in Constantinople would randomly beat-up Jews in the streets, while Heraclius here saw the loss of Jerusalem as God’s punishment for his incestuous marriage to his niece Martina. The Balkans here was still facing a heavy crisis of the raiding Avars and Slavs, and it grew even worse there when Heraclius had to pull out its troops to head over to the east to focus on the Sassanid threat but Heraclius himself too did not want to lose the Balkans, so even with the Sassanid threat ongoing, he headed north to confront the Avars and Slavs where in 619 he tried to propose peace with the Avar khan or ruler as the Sassanid threat was more important and devastating, but the khan refused Heraclius’ offer and set a trap to kidnap him, although Heraclius escaped the trap almost getting himself killed, thus due to failing in kidnapping Heraclius, the Avars were then forced to make peace with the Byzantines.

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Byzantine soldier (right) attacks a Slav (left) with an Avar behind, during the 7th century Balkan Wars

At this point, things would go from bad to worse for the Byzantines as in 619, the Sassanids now managed to invade and capture Byzantine Egypt, thus totally cutting off the empire’s grain supply and triggering riots all over the empire because of this while in 620, almost the entire Byzantine Balkans and half of Greece were lost to the Avars and Slavs as again troops needed to be sent over to fight the Sassanids in the east. With all this crisis going on, Heraclius first thought hope was lost and that he had to move the imperial capital to Carthage where he was based in before, but soon he knew he could solve it but in order to do so, he needed to take the greatest of risks and a lot had to do with taxation policies which included increasing taxes and taxing the Church and cutting in half the annual pay for the soldiers and court officials and although this would trigger them to revolt like they did under Maurice, Heraclius at least convinced them it was only temporary, assuring them everything will soon stabilize when the war against the Sassanids will be over. In the meantime, it was around this point, more particularly in the year 622 down south in the Arabian Desert when the new religion of Islam was born as here in 622 the prophet Muhammad– an Arabian trader from the Quraysh tribe born back in 570 when Justin II ruled Byzantium- with his followers fled his birth city of Mecca to Medina when the people of Mecca did not accept this new faith, although as early as 610, Muhammad had already been receiving some divine revelations.            

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Sassanid army captures Byzantine Jerusalem, 614

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Greatest extent of the Sassanid Empire (orange) under Khosrow II, by 622

In 622, Heraclius’ holdings were only limited to Constantinople, Thrace, some of Greece, the Aegean Islands, and Western Asia Minor as North Africa and Italy were under the control of the exarchs while the Sassanids had now captured almost all of Asia Minor penetrating all the way as far as the Asian shore of the Bosporus, right across Constantinople that the people of Constantinople even reported that at night when looking across the Bosporus, they could already see the campfires of the Sassanid army, although no matter how much land they have conquered, the Sassanid Persians did not have a fleet to let them cross into Europe and lay siege to Constantinople. It was here in 622 when the Sassanid Empire under Shah Khosrow II was at its largest territorial extent reaching as far west as Chalcedon across Constantinople, as far south as Egypt and Yemen, as far north as the Caucasus Mountains in Southern Russia, and as far east as the border of India, and here Heraclius would make a very bold move by attacking the Sassanids when they were at their most powerful and largest in land.

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Emperor Heraclius in full battle gear

By 622, Heraclius’ army was now fully prepared to face off the might of the Sassanids in battle so here they set off from Constantinople by sea landing at the location of Issus in Cilicia, Southern Asia Minor, the same place Alexander the Great had defeated the Achaemenid Persian Empire all the way back in 333BC. In his campaign, Heraclius brought along with him his wife Martina who would give birth to their children as they travelled while Heraclius’ eldest 10-year-old son Constantine was left behind in Constantinople to watch over it together with Patriarch Sergius I. After landing at Issus, Heraclius and his army headed north to Sassanid occupied Cappadocia where they actually managed to beat the invincible general Shahrbaraz in battle recapturing the region, afterwards heading north back to the region of Pontus along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor which was still under Byzantine rule, and here Heraclius made the coastal city of Trebizond as his base for the campaign. It was at this point when the idea of warfare would change from fighting over conquering lands to fighting for faith and as to motivate his soldiers in battle, Heraclius encouraged them they were fighting not to get rid of an enemy but in the name of Orthodox Christianity as they saw the Zoroastrian Sassanids as the enemy of their faith considering they looted the holy sites of Jerusalem and stole the most important Christian relics.

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Trebizond, base of Heraclius in his Sassanid campaign

By 623, Heraclius crossed deep into Sassanid territory through Armenia in pursuit of Khosrow II who was believed to be in the Sassanid’s province of Albania (today’s Azerbaijan), although Khosrow II was nowhere to be found but instead it was here in this area where the Zoroastrian holy site of the Fire Temple was found, which had been sacred to the Persians ever since the days of the ancient Persian kingdoms and empires and as Heraclius and his army arrived there, they believed the stolen relics were to be found there, although they were wrong and when finding nothing there, Heraclius out revenge for the Sassanids’ looting of Jerusalem ordered the Fire Temple burned down completely.

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Persian Zoroastrian Fire Temple sample drawing

In 624, Heraclius had come across the Nomadic Turkic Khazar people of the Caucasus and here made an alliance with their khan against the Sassanids as they both had the Sassanids as a common enemy and with this alliance, Heraclius was able to score more major victories against the Sassanids, and it was at this point when the Byzantines were able to reclaim Armenia from the Sassanids and although they had been scoring victories in the east against the Sassanids, it also happened here in 624 in the far west that the Visigoths of Spain completely took over the last remains of Byzantine Southern Spain, which the Byzantines never bothered about recapturing anymore. In 625, Heraclius again with the help of the Khazars were able to recapture Mesopotamia forcing Shahrbaraz who was defeated again here to flee while also here in 625, Martina gave birth to her only healthy son with Heraclius which was Heraklonas as due to inbreeding, the other children of Martina and Heraclius either died shortly after birth or had physical deformities.

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Nomadic Khazar army from the Caucasus

When fleeing Mesopotamia, Shahrbaraz in 626 headed all the way to Sassanid occupied land across Constantinople in Asia Minor where he found a way to send word to the same Avar khan that almost captured Heraclius in 619 to form alliance to attack Constantinople, and here the Avars and Slavs being at the European side laid siege to Constantinople’s land walls itself making this the second time Constantinople was attacked by an enemy army, the last one being the Goths in 378 which failed, mentioned back in chapter I. Using the absence of Heraclius to their advantage, the Avars and Slavs with 80,000 men combined attacked Constantinople’s invincible 5th century Theodosian Walls but using primitive siege weapons, they got nowhere near breaching it and poor communications with the Sassanids across the Bosporus made the coordination of this siege even more difficult. Defending Constantinople here as Heraclius and his best forces away was Heraclius’ 14-year-old son Constantine as well as the patriarch Sergius I and the patrician Bonus who all did not have much military experience and only commanding some 12,000 men, though Heraclius soon got word of the siege and not wanting to waste his efforts in coming close to winning the Sassanid war in the east, here he split his army in 3 parts where the smallest division under him was to defend Armenia, the division of his brother Theodore was sent over to defend what was recaptured in Mesopotamia, and third one to reinforce Constantinople.

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Byzantine fleet intercepts the small Slavic boats, 626 Avar-Slav-Sassanid Siege of Constantinople

As the Avars and Slavs attacked by land, Sharbaraz attempted to aid them by sending his forces across the Bosporus using the small boats of the Slavs which failed as these boats were too unstable to carry large armies and soon enough the Byzantine fleet arrived at the Bosporus destroying the Slavic boats and killing the Sassanid soldiers that boarded them. After multiple attempts at scaling Constantinople’s walls, the Avars and Slavs gave up, and so did the Sassanids, thus they retreated and for the Avars, their loss in this battle broke off their power forcing them to retreat back north never to return again, although leaving their Slav allies behind in the Balkans. Over in Mesopotamia also in 626, Theodore and his forces won a decisive victory over the Sassanid forces led by the general Shahin and with this defeat, Shahin committed suicide while his body was brought over to Khosrow II who enraged with Shahin’s defeat disfigured Shahin’s body himself by whipping it many times. It was in 627 when Heraclius himself resumed personally leading the army as for 626, he left the job mostly to his Khazar allies as in 627, the alliance with the Khazars broke when their khan died and here Heraclius marched south to the Sassanid heartland in Iraq by stalking the Sassanid forces under the general Rhahzadh until both forces met near the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh. Here on December 12, 627 when the Byzantine and Sassanid forces clashed at the Battle of Nineveh, Heraclius personally killed Rhahzadh and two other Sassanid commanders himself and at the end of the day, the Byzantines won a decisive victory opening the way for them to besiege the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon which unlike Constantinople was not surrounded by water making it easier to attack being on flat ground. The shah Khosrow II meanwhile began suspecting Shahrbaraz of treason and when sending a letter to Shahrbaraz, Heraclius intercepted it and forged it ordering Shahrbaraz to remain in Asia Minor which definitely allowed Heraclius and his army to seize, capture, and loot Khosrow II’s palace of Dastagird near Ctesiphon in 628 and when looting the palace, they came across tons of exotic spices and Persian carpets, exotic animals like lions and tigers, and 300 Roman war standards captured over the past 3 centuries by the Sassanids in battle and after taking the loot, the palace was burned to the ground, though since Khosrow II was away, Ctesiphon was left untouched by the Byzantines. Khosrow II on the other hand was still nowhere to be found as he fled further east fearing a prophecy saying he would be killed, although his end did not come from the Byzantines but from his own people. After Heraclius and his army began heading back west, the Sassanid nobles together with Khosrow’s son Sheroe and general Shahrbaraz conspired to overthrow Khosrow II and on February 28, 628 Khosrow II was captured and executed and so were his other sons except of course Sheroe who was then crowned as Shah Kavad II and his first act as the new Sassanid emperor was to finally end the war and make peace with Byzantium.

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Execution of Khosrow II, 628

Kavad II acknowledged Heraclius as the victor of the war sending Shahrbaraz to Asia Minor where Heraclius was at to conclude peace and here, the relics looted from Jerusalem including the True Cross were returned to Heraclius. Part of this peace agreement too was for all Sassanid forces in Byzantine territory to retreat back home and to return to the Byzantines all the lands the Sassanids had conquered from them since 602 which included Armenia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt as well as the major cities of Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, and right here the long war ended without achieving really anything for the Byzantines despite them penetrating deep into the Sassanid heartland, instead it only resulted in the pre-war borders restored.

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Byzantine era sketch of Heraclius in 628 (left) with his family

Heraclius here at 53 at least returned to Constantinople victorious as a war hero celebrating his return with a triumphal march and in it was paraded all their loot taken from the 6-year campaign including 4 Persian war elephants and with all this victory, Heraclius became extremely popular with his people as also winning the war had filled up the empty treasury once again, thus the promise to resume paying the army and government officials in full again was fulfilled. The following year (629), Heraclius himself journeyed to Jerusalem, which had just been restored to Byzantine rule to return the True Cross and before entering, he felt a kind of divine energy that him feel it wasn’t right to ride into the city, rather he dismounted from his horse and carried the True Cross himself to its rightful place, the Church of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, setting a new tradition for those who would conquer Jerusalem in the next centuries to come which was for the conquering ruler to walk into the city by foot.

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Heraclius returns the True Cross to Jerusalem, 629

Heraclius too after defeating the Sassanids took the ruling title the Sassanid Persian rulers used which was “King of Kings” as well as dropping the Roman title of Augustus in which all Byzantine emperors before him used, instead replacing it with Basileus which was “emperor” in Greek and for the next 800 years all emperors would use this title, thus here marks the beginning of the Greek age of the Byzantine Empire. As for the Sassanids, right when they thought they came too close to crushing the Byzantines and conquering the world, they were proven wrong here as in 628, their all-powerful emperor Khosrow II was executed, his son and successor Kavad II died the same year from the Plague of Justinian which again returned in Sassanid lands, and in the following year, civil war broke out that would definitely spell the end of the Sassanid Empire, thus this war that had just ended would be remembered as the “Final Byzantine-Sassanid War”.

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Byzantines defeat the besieging Sassanid forces at Constantinople, 626

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Emperor Heraclius and his Byzantine forces defeat the Sassanids at the Battle of Nineveh, 627

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Heraclius and his army loot the Sassanid imperial palace at Dastagird, 628

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Ctesiphon, imperial capital of the Sassanid Empire

Watch this to learn more about the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628 (Kings and Generals).


The Rise of the Arab Caliphate (630-641)

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As the Byzantines and Sassanids clashed in a full-scale war, the disunited Arab tribes of the southern deserts began to unite and what caused them to unite was the new religion of Islam which the prophet Muhammad had successfully spread. By 629, Muhammad and his followers who became his army successfully conquered Mecca where they had been chased away from years earlier, and soon enough they had united almost all of Arabia under Islam except for the lands still under Sassanid rule.

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Muhammad’s Conquest of Mecca, 629

Early Muslim sources say that in 628 before the recapture of Mecca, Muhammad sent letters to both Heraclius of Byzantium who was referred to as the “Roman emperor” and Khosrow II of the Sassanid Empire who was still alive, encouraging them to join him by converting their empires to Islam, and Heraclius here after his triumph received the letter and politely wrote back saying he would consider it but his people would not, while Khosrow II already losing his sanity at this point before his death rudely tore the letter which gave a reason for Muhammad’s followers to one day invade the Sassanid Empire.

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Muhammad’s letter to Heraclius

The failure to convert Byzantium to Islam led a small Arab army to attack the Byzantine lands that bordered the Arabian Desert (today’s Jordan) and here at the Battle of Mu’tah, the Byzantines aided by the forces of their client kingdom, the Christian Arab Ghassanids that had settled right at this part at the edge of the Arabian Desert were able to defeat this small Arab force. Back in the Sassanid Empire, the civil war after Kavad II’s death got even worse that one ruler just kept coming after the other and in this unstable time, the general Shahrbaraz even took the throne and became shah in 630 but was killed the same year and replaced as ruler by Khosrow II’s daughter Boran, the first and only female Sassanid ruler who was later killed in 632 and in this time of civil war, the Sassanid governors of the provinces of Mazun and Yemen declared independence making these provinces an easy target for the now united Arabs which they soon enough had conquered. In the meantime as Heraclius had won the Sassanid war being more popular than ever, he had been touring the eastern provinces that the Sassanids had just returned to the Byzantines and at this time, being the year 630, he had his first grandson which was the son of his eldest son Constantine with his wife Gregoria, born as Heraclius Constantine on November 7 and was named after both his grandfather and father but to not confuse things, historians would refer to him as Constans the nickname he was called which meant “little Constantine” in Latin. It also happened at this time in 632 that the prophet Muhammad died in Medina and at his death, all of Arabia was united under Islam and even though the founder of the rising Empire of Islam had died, his work was to be continued by his close friend and relative Abu Bakr who would succeed Muhammad as the leader of the Islamic people and become the first Caliph or emperor of the first Islamic Empire which here, founded in 632 was the Rashidun Caliphate and it was under the first Caliph Abu Bakr after putting all of Arabia under his rule wherein the Islamic Arab armies would expand beyond Arabia to conquer Byzantine and Sassanid territories.

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Flag of the Rashidun Caliphate, the 1st Islamic Empire

All while the Arab armies were set to expand beyond Arabia, Heraclius as most of the emperors did got himself involved in the endless religious debates and controversies which here in the 7th century was again between the Orthodox and Monophysite Christians with the debates being again on the natures of Christ and ever since 622, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople proposed a new compromise which was to end the debates by concluding a new doctrine saying that Jesus Christ had one energy. This new doctrine was well agreed to by many bishops and patriarchs across the empire, even by the Patriarch of Rome or the pope, though only the Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius objected to it.

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Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople

While Heraclius had been occupied by religious debates, the Arab armies numbering up to 24,000 here in 633 had now made their first full attacks in Byzantine Syria and Palestine invading from the east as previously, the Arabs had already conquered the Sassanid territories along the border with Byzantine Syria and Palestine. In 634, Caliph Abu Bakr had died and was succeeded by Omar, another follower of Muhammad as the 2nd Rashidun caliph and it was under his rule when Islam would fully expand by force as here too in 634, his forces further defeated the Byzantines and even more in 635 when almost all of Syria including the city of Damascus fell to the Arabs. At this time, Heraclius concluded that he was too old to lead the armies in person but being in Antioch at the time the Arabs began their invasion of Syria, Heraclius sent an army of 40,000 men under a general named Theodore– which was not his brother with the same name- to push the Arabs back, and though the fighting styles of the Arabs were not familiar to the Byzantines at all as it was never mentioned anywhere, not even in Maurice’s Strategikon, Heraclius and his generals at least tried to wing it out thinking the strength of the Arabs was nothing much, as after all they were just desert tribes barely armed and armored and had just began expanding. The Byzantine forces under Theodore and Arab forces under their energetic general Khalid ibn al-Walid, another follower of Muhammad met them at the Battle of the Yarmouk River in the Syrian Desert in August of 636 and here the Byzantines now saw the full strength and capability of the Arab armies that could easily overwhelm them in an instant with the speed of their cavalry consisting of horses and camels as well as their harassing tactics.

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Khalid ibn al-Walid, commander of the Arab forces at the Battle of Yarmouk, 636

The Byzantines though had been used to fighting in fixed formations in all their wars especially against the Sassanids, and here they thought they could face off the Arabs this way, but the Arabs fought differently by attacking in lose formations and with such speed surrounding the Byzantine forces exhausting them. The battle went on for 5 days and at first, the Byzantines seemed to be having the upper hand but on the 5th day, a sudden sandstorm blew at the directions of the Byzantine forces to the point that they could not see even a meter ahead of them and as a result of this, the Arabs not affected by the sandstorm used it as an opportunity to slaughter the Byzantines, and at the end of the day, not a single Byzantine soldier was left alive including their general Theodore, thus this opened the way for the Arabs to capture everything the Byzantines gained back from the Sassanids in 628.        

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Cavalry of the Arab Rashidun Caliphate

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Battle of Yarmouk, 636- Defeat of the Byzantine forces (left) to the Arabs (right)

In the meantime, while the Byzantine forces were absolutely defeated at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the Arabs again won another great victory later that year, this time against the Sassanid forces at the Battle of Al-Qadisiya where another division of the Arab army with their speed and harassing tactics totally annihilated the Sassanid forces weakened from the previous war against the Byzantines, and even if the Sassanids had elephants here, they still lost with most of their generals killed. Following this victory, the Arabs proceeded further into the Sassanid Empire with very little resistance and by 637, they had laid siege to Ctesiphon while the very young Sassanid shah Yazdegerd III, grandson of Khosrow II who had come to power in 632 fled Ctesiphon to the north and not surprisingly, Ctesiphon had fallen to the Arabs in very little time. Back in Syria, the way for the Arabs was clear and now their ultimate prize was Jerusalem as they knew it was the holy city for the Byzantine Christians and also a holy city for Islam, though the Arabs knew that capturing Jerusalem would weaken the morale of the Byzantines. The Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius though knew the Arabs would soon attack Jerusalem so before things could get worse, Sophronius had the relic of the True Cross returned by Heraclius in 629 shipped to Constantinople for safekeeping fearing the Arabs would steal it the way the Sassanids did before.

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Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem

Now in early 637, the Arab forces again led by the victor of Yarmouk Al-Walid laid siege to Jerusalem which was poorly defended by the very exhausted and outnumbered Byzantine troops with only Patriarch Sophronius leading them. Seeing the Arab forces outside, Sophronius did not want to put up a fight, instead he agreed to surrender the city only if the caliph Omar himself would accept the surrender. At this time, Omar all the way in the Arab Caliphate’s capital Medina in the Arabian Desert travelled himself north to Jerusalem in a white camel, where doing the same as Heraclius did in 629 out of respect for the city got off his camel and entered the city by foot where he was met by Sophronius himself who surrendered the keys of the city to Omar. In Jerusalem, Omar was treated well as Sophronius himself gave him a tour of the city’s holy sites, and here they made a deal which was that Omar was allowed to take Jerusalem as long as he allowed Sophronius to keep his position as patriarch and for the Christians and Jews to be left alone to worship freely with their Muslim occupiers. Jerusalem then fell peacefully while the Arabs later conquered all of Syria and Palestine except for Antioch where the emperor was still in, but hearing now that Jerusalem and Syria was lost, Heraclius just chose to say goodbye knowing that with the might of the Arabs, it would be too difficult to take them back so he then set sail returning to Constantinople while later in 637, even Antioch had fallen to the Arabs.

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Surrender of Jerusalem to Rashidun Caliph Omar (on camel), 637

Over in the Sassanid Empire, the Arabs again severely defeated the Sassanid forces at the Battle of Jalula in Iraq while Shah Yazdegerd III fled even deeper into Iran which the Sassanids still held. Heraclius on the other hand had been losing his popularity after losing all of the east to the Arabs, and a lot of people blamed his defeats again all on his incestuous marriage to Martina and when arriving back across the Bosporus in Constantinople, Heraclius had developed a great fear of water that Martina had to have a wooden bridge lined with railings for him to cross so that he would not see the water. In 638, Heraclius here had been losing his sanity that he could no longer rule alone so here he appointed his 26-year-old son Constantine to be his co-emperor Constantine III though Martina also convinced Heraclius to make her son with him Heraklonas who was now 13 as his other co-emperor equal in rank to Constantine III.

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Emperor Heraclius of Byzantium (r. 610-641) as an older man

It also happened in 638 that Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem and Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople both died peacefully- in their respective cities- leaving the new Monothelite doctrine unresolved while Heraclius’ health grew even worse that it was said by the 9th century historian Nikephoros that Heraclius was suffering a kind of prostate cancer as he had difficulties in urinating. By 639, the Arabs now began their invasion of Byzantine Egypt while in 640, they began invading Byzantine Armenia and Heraclius here was now in shock, but knowing nothing can be done about it anymore, as here, the dying emperor concluded that God was definitely punishing him for marrying Martina.

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Empress Martina, wife and niece of Heraclius, art by Skamandros

In February 11, 641 the 66-year-old Emperor Heraclius had died in Constantinople ruling for 30 years through many ups and downs. In his reign, Heraclius began ruling a deeply troubled empire in ruins which grew worse but was able to put it back together, but just as he thought he did, everything he worked so hard on fell apart, thus he died a broken man seeing all the lands he regained after defeating the Sassanids lost to the Arabs, therefore it can simply be said that Heraclius had lived too long that it would be better off that he died shortly after his victory against the Sassanids in 628 as a happy man, but instead he lived long enough to see all his hard work undone unlike Justinian I before him who at least died long before his hard work in expanding the empire would be all shattered. Heraclius though had the legacy of beginning the Greek era of Byzantium by turning Greek into the major language that it would no longer be only a major language for everyday use but a language used in the government and army, reorganizing the political-military system of the empire by laying the foundations for the Thematic System that would be operational years later, and seeing the Taurus Mountains of Asia Minor as the empire’s new natural defense against the Arabs, which sure enough will soon happen as well.

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Battle of Al-Qadisiyah- ultimate defeat of the Sassanid Empire to the Arab Rashidun Caliphate, 636

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Coin of Heraclius, Constantine III, and Heraklonas as co-emperors, 638-641

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Fullest extent of the Arab Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century (green) with vassal states (light green)


The Reign of Constans II (641-656)             

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The year 641 would forever be remembered as the year of the 4 emperors first being Heraclius who died in February of that year and was immediately succeeded by his eldest son Constantine III who was extremely popular with the people of Constantinople as it was him at only age 14 back in 626 who helped successfully defend Constantinople from the Avars, Slavs, and Sassanids. However, Constantine III is not be confused with another Roman emperor who was also Constantine III, a usurper turned legitimate emperor from the Western Roman Empire (r. 407-411) who was mentioned in chapter II of this series, though surprisingly this Byzantine emperor in 641 was also Constantine III despite there being another one with his name, and as emperor at age 29, the Byzantine Constantine III was already in bad health suffering from tuberculosis, and the empire he inherited from his father had a very empty treasury due to the previous wars with the Sassanids and now with the Arabs that a few weeks after his father’s death, he had to open his father’s coffin, take the crown, and sell it to increase the treasury. After only 2 months of being in power, Constantine III fell deathly ill and here he sent off some money to an Armenian general named Valentinus, a descendant of Armenia’s ancient Arsacid Dynasty that ruled Armenia (54-428AD), to back Constantine’s young son Constans as the new emperor as Constantine did not feel his half-brother Heraklonas who was his co-emperor at an equal level was fit to be emperor as he was under the regency of his mother Martina who Constantine III did not really trust as his step-mother.

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Emperor Heraklonas of Byzantium (r. 641), son of Heraclius and Martina

Previously, Martina convinced Heraclius that her son Heraklonas should be Constantine III’s co-emperor to protect her interests which the old Heraclius had agreed to and although a lot of historians always give a bad image of Martina as the wicked step-mother, it is not entirely true as at that time, ambitious women were usually given a bad image as the standard back then was for women to be content with where they are and true enough in this story’s case, Martina never really had any evil intentions. On May 3 of 641, Constantine III died from tuberculosis, though again others suspect Martina and Heraklonas of poisoning him, and Constantine’s son Constans surely believed Martina and Heraklonas envied his father and poisoned him and so now the 16-year-old Heraklonas ruled as the sole emperor, though only a puppet of his mother Martina. Heraklonas’ actually ruled as “Heraclius II” but to not be confused with his father, he used the name Heraklonas meaning “little Heraclius” just as Constans meant “little Constantine” and already when Heraklonas came to power, he was already unpopular, precisely because he was the child of an incestuous marriage between uncle and niece and his mother Martina was surely unpopular being an ambitious woman. It was here some months after Heraklonas became emperor when the general Valentinus arrived outside Constantinople with orders from the late Constantine III demanding that Heraklonas make young Constans his co-emperor to continue Constantine III’s line, but Heraklonas and Martina refused the offer. Sometime later, Valentinus began spreading rumors that Martina and Heraklonas wanted to depose young Constans, and the people who were loyal to Constantine III with Constans being his son all revolted in favor of Constans and by September of 641, both Martina and Heraklonas were arrested and the almost 11-year-old Constans was put in the throne reigning as “Constantine IV”, although history would forever remember him by reigning with his nickname as “Constans II” whereas his son who will appear later on would be the “Constantine IV”, and now the first Constans was the 4th century Byzantine emperor Constans I (r. 337-350), who was discussed back in chapter I. Martina and Heraklonas were then banished from the palace and young Constans II came to rule the empire under the regency of Valentinus, the senate, his mother Gregoria, and the new Patriarch of Constantinople Paul II. Later that year at only 11, Constans would already show the kind of autocratic style of ruling that would define his reign when he spoke to the senate at the square outside Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia known as the Augusteum where the Column of Justinian was, and here he falsely accused Martina and Heraklonas of poisoning his father even if he died naturally, yet with his speech, the young emperor would already show how smart, cunning, and articulate he was in the skill of speech, and here is how the speech goes:

After my father Constantine was born, he was emperor with his own father, my grandfather Heraclius for a long time during his life, but after him for a very short while, for the envy of his stepmother Martina ended his high hopes and his life. She did this for the sake of Heraklonas, who was her illegitimate son by Heraclius. It was mostly your decision, which expelled her and her son from the imperial power, and your great dignity knows it well. Therefore, I can call on you to be advisors and judges for the common wealth of our subjects.

-Constans II, 641

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The Augusteum of Constantinople with the Hagia Sophia and Column of Justinian

           

Now Martina and Heraklonas in fact did not commit any crime, rather they just envied Constantine III but with this kind of eloquent speech made by young Constans II, the senate immediately put all the blame on Martina and Heraklonas falsely accusing them, as they never saw Heraklonas as legitimate ruler anyway as for them the incestuous marriage between Heraclius and Martina was already illegal, therefore Heraklonas was an illegitimate child and unfit for being an emperor. As Martina and Heraklonas were both condemned as public enemies, the mob seized them and had Martina’s tongue slit while Heraklonas’ nose was cut off, the first time it would happen to an emperor, thus making this a new practice for deposing emperors, as having just a single deformity like not having a nose would make someone unfit to rule whereas the Byzantines saw that their emperor had to be perfect in physical form. Both Martina and Heraklonas were then banished to the Island of Rhodes where Heraklonas would die by early 642 possibly from suicide or from the severity of the injury caused by his nose being cut-off while Martina would die possibly peacefully years later in Rhodes as well. Now back to young Constans II, it also turned out that he too was a child of an incestuous marriage, although the level of the marriage of Constantine III and Gregoria was not as high as the level of incest between Heraclius and Martina being uncle and niece as Constantine III and Gregoria were only second cousins with Greogria being the daughter of Heraclius’ cousin Nicetas who helped Heraclius seize Egypt back in 608 from Phocas’ loyalist army, and one lesser known fact was that Constans II did indeed have a twin brother named Theodosius who looked very similar to him but not exactly, making this one of the few rare cases of rulers in world history that actually had a twin. The big question here was why it was Constans that was chosen to be emperor and not Theodosius even if possibly one could not tell which was the older one, but the answer could be that their father Constantine III certainly knew Constans came out first on November 7 of 630. Constans and Theodosius were born when their grandfather Heraclius was at his height of popularity but as they grew up, they would hear nothing more but tragic news of entire provinces being lost to the Arabs and their grandfather losing his popularity by a lot, and as the host of the History of Byzantium podcast Robin Pierson says, the reason why Constans II would end up ruling in such a bitter and paranoid way was the childhood he grew up with as first he grew up hearing stories of his empire’s armies which were once so powerful suddenly being defeated, then he became emperor at only 11 inheriting a highly troubled empire, therefore he would indeed lose his childhood putting all his attention to his empire. As for Theodosius, due to the fact that he did not become emperor, he would instead enjoy life growing up in the imperial palace while his twin brother ruled, although he secretly did want to claim the empire as he had some kind of idea that he could have been born first, which is why he would later be suspected of plotting, well at least in this story’s case. The empire Constans II had inherited was now having to fight on the defensive against the Arabs in the east with the provinces of Syria and Palestine lost, Egypt now under attack, the Balkans and half of Greece entirely lost to the Slavs who were left behind by their Avar allies there, Italy split in half between the Byzantines and Lombards, all of Byzantine Spain lost, and North Africa where Carthage was soon to be threatened by the Arabs. The biggest mystery for Constans II, which in this story’s case would define his true intention to fully deal with the Arabs by force is how the Arabs expanded out nowhere as just shortly before his birth, they had just been scattered tribes in the southern deserts that did not ever pose much of a threat to the Byzantines that the Strategikon of Maurice even said nothing about their fighting styles, yet now in only less than 20 years since expanding out of the desert they had crushed the Sassanid Empire and took away almost half of Byzantium. The answer to this mystery then is that if all the people of this vast desert in which there were many all united under a common ideology which here is the religion of Islam, then they would all be fighting with such zeal that would allow them to keep wanting to conquer, and this true enough was the case for the Arabs who no one saw their sudden expansion out of the Arabian Desert coming. In addition, the Arabs being people of the desert moved quick and light which allowed them to travel so fast unlike the Byzantines and Sassanids who always moved in formation and always with a plan, while the Arabs just moved spontaneously without having much equipment and supplies the way the Byzantines and Sassanids did, and also unlike the Byzantines and Sassanids who could not cross deserts, the Arabs being from it could which allowed them to quickly take over all of Byzantine Egypt soon enough.

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7th century Arab infantry army charges with full speed

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7th century Arab cavalry advances across the desert

          

Now the year 642 would be a bad year for the Byzantines as this was when Egypt completely fell to the Arab Rashidun Caliphate when the last Byzantine garrison in Alexandria feeling they could no longer hold onto it agreed to surrender the imperial capital of Egypt to the Arabs, although the Byzantine authorities back in Constantinople knew it was not yet over and that they could still take it back one day.

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Last of the Byzantine forces in Egypt, 642, by Amelianvs

It was also in 642 when Valentinus married off his daughter Fausta to Constans, and though it was not recorded how old Fausta was, in this story’s case she would be 2 years older than Constans, and as for Valentinus he was appointed as commander of the armies or Magister Militum which was still in use but would soon no longer be, and being only regent and not co-emperor, he was still allowed to wear the imperial purple. In 643, with news of the Arabs attacking Eastern Asia Minor, Valentinus with an army was sent to deal with them while also in this year, the young Constans II would score a great achievement, not only in military matters but in diplomacy, and here is when he would send Byzantine ambassadors far away to the court of the Tang Empire of China itself. There are not much sources on Constans II’s embassy to Tang China, but it is said that it happened here in the year 643, though it is not said who exactly young Constans II sent to China, but in this fan fiction story’s case, the two ambassadors sent all the way there were 2 senators from the patrician class named Alexios which was the older one and Philippikos the younger one with 2 other attendants- as an illustration of the imperial court of China with them in it depicts- who would travel for a year or more, and considering the Sassanid Empire at this point was already in ruins and the Arab Caliphate having not yet reached Central Asia, their journey would be easier.

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Byzantine ambassadors of Constans II arrive in the court of the Tang Chinese emperor Taizong in Chang’an

Despite the distance of China, then known as Seres to the Romans (Byzantines), Constans II knew something about it considering that the Byzantine silk industry was something taken from China when a century ago if you remember from the previous chapter, monks that journeyed there smuggled Chinese silkworms presenting them to the emperor Justinian I also reporting to him how they made their silks there, and after stealing the Chinese state secret, the Byzantines were true enough able to develop top quality silk just as the Chinese did, which was true enough indeed able to once again revive their economy that was ruined by the plague. Apparently, the Old Book of Tang as well as the New Book of Tang from China in this era records an embassy from the Roman (Byzantine) Empire in 643 by Constans II (referred to by the Chinese as King Buduoli) and his empire as Fulin, although even before this, the Roman Empire and China have long been aware of each other. The gifts Alexios and Philippikos brought over to the Chinese Empire’s capital of Chang’an in behalf of Constans II included red glass and green gemstones, though it is not clear what their intention was, but in this story’s case I would say these ambassadors came to Tang China asking their emperor Taizong for some military alliance and funds against the expanding Arabs.

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Taizong, Tang Chinese emperor (r. 626-649)

Back in Byzantium in 643, a rebellion in Italy rose up against Constans II, this one here was in Rome led by its military commander or Dux Maurikios Chartoularios (his name literally the Greek translation of Maurice) and here he wanted to rule Rome as his own state independent from the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna, but the Exarch of Ravenna here which was Isaac soon enough got word about this, thus sending an army to Rome which successfully captured Maurikios, executing him in Ravenna. Meanwhile, Valentinus and his army suffered a defeat to the Arabs in Asia Minor and Valentinus wanting to regain his relevance after this defeat marched back to Constantinople demanding the throne and for Constans II to be deposed. As Valentinus and his army amassed outside Constantinople in 644 now turning on Constans II, the people persuaded by Patriarch Paul II backed Constans II as he was seen as the legitimate ruler, therefore turning on Valentinus who was later killed by the mob as they rushed out of the gates, thus leaving Constans II here at only 14 as the sole ruler of the empire without a regent. Historical sources though do not mention what Constans II’s mother Gregoria had been doing here or his wife Fausta, but let’s just say here that Gregoria refused to run the empire leaving everything behind to her young son, who here would lose his childhood and teenage years plain and simple by having to face the burden of ruling an empire. On the other hand, the Byzantine Christian people of the lands of Syria and Palestine which the Arabs had conquered were actually fine with being under the Arabs and not demanding the Byzantines to reclaim their lands as the Arabs proved to be tolerant rulers that were easy on taxation, therefore no need for rebelling against them. Although in Arab occupied Egypt, things were much different there as there the Arab overlords were harsher in taxation and less tolerant in allowing the Christians there to practice their faith which led the people to rebel wanting Byzantine rule to be restored. Just as the people of Egypt started rising up against their new Arab overlords, a Byzantine fleet from Constantinople with an army on board under the command of the admiral Manuel was to set sail for Egypt to liberate at least Alexandria from the Arabs. In 645, Manuel and his forces captured and occupied Alexandria putting it back again under Byzantine rule using the absence of its Arab governor Amr ibn al-As to his advantage as the governor was recalled to Medina, the Rashidun Caliphate’s capital as here they had a new caliph which was Uthman, another of Muhammad’s followers who had succeeded Omar following Omar’s death in 644.

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Amr ibn al-As, Arab general and governor of Egypt, art by sergio-quijada

Manuel was seen in Alexandria as their liberator and savior but in 646, the Arab governor Amr arrived back in Egypt, and to the surprise of the Byzantines the Arabs returned with a full fleet as apparently, in the previous years with the Arabs having captured the Levant (Syria and Palestine), they had been able to amass a fleet capturing old Byzantine ships and get the locals of the area to sail the fleet for them and so here in 646, the Arab fleet defeated the Byzantine fleet and took back Alexandria together with the rest of Egypt while Manuel returned to Byzantine territory, never to be heard from again. This event here in 646 marked the end of Byzantine rule in Egypt which was to be certainly a heavy blow to the empire as the major grain supply was lost, but not all of it as the empire still had Carthage which produced a major amount of grain, but losing Egypt too meant allowing the Arabs to take over more ports which then blocked off the Byzantines’ trade with the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, and when losing Egypt here in 646, the Byzantines now would never have hopes in taking it back anymore. Prior to the complete fall of Byzantine Egypt in 646, when the Arabs under Amr ibn al-As occupied Alexandria back in 642, Amr had the walls of Alexandria razed and here legends says, he had the ancient and highly important Library of Alexandria burned down together with all the books and knowledge kept in it but really, when he occupied Alexandria, the library was already rundown ever since the late 4th century when fanatical Christian mobs ransacked the library wanting to get rid of ancient Pagan knowledge. The truth however was that the Arabs did not want the metropolis of Alexandria as their capital, instead they would rather have a location along the desert and not by the sea as this was the life they were used to coming from the Arabian deserts, and so back in 642 Amr turned the village of Fustat deeper down the Nile River and closer to the Egyptian Desert as the new provincial capital, which would later on become the city of Cairo.

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Fustat (Cairo), new imperial capital of Egypt under the Arabs

Fast-forward to 646, now that the Arabs had all of Egypt with Cairo as their capital, they decided next to turn west and conquer the Byzantine Maghreb (Northwest Africa) including Carthage while at the same time in Carthage, the Exarch of Africa Gregory who was a relative of the ruling Heraclian Dynasty, and therefore of Constans II rebelled and declared himself emperor feeling Constans was too underaged, but the Arab armies having the ability to cross a desert without difficulty crossed the Sahara Desert from Egypt arriving near Carthage in 647 forcing Gregory to have to confront them in battle. Being as far west as Carthage, Exarch Gregory did not know that much about how powerful the Arabs were in battle until confronting them and right here, Gregory was killed at the Battle of Sufetula near Carthage against the Arabs and so was almost his entire army, therefore ending his rebellion. Though the Arabs defeated the Byzantines here in North Africa and made raids into it, North Africa did not yet fall to the Arabs as the Byzantine authorities of Carthage agreed to pay tribute to the Arabs, now making the Exarchate of Carthage a vassal state to the Arab Rashidun Caliphate. It also happened in 647 that the Arab armies from the east now having occupied most of the Sassanid Empire started raiding deeper into Byzantine Asia Minor into regions such as Cappadocia, Cilicia, and the mountains of Isauria, and these attacks were being directed by the Arab governor of Syria Muawiyah, a native of the Arabian Desert coming from the Umayyad clan, meaning he was not part of Muhammad’s clan and before Muhammad united Arabia, Muawiyah and his family opposed Muhammad until Muhammad recaptured Mecca in 629 wherein Muawiyah switched his support to Muhammad, converted to Islam, and became Muhammad’s scribe and in 639 following the Arab conquest of Syria, Muawiyah was appointed as its governor by Caliph Omar and to be based in Damascus, and he had turned out to be a very ambitious leader with the ultimate goal of conquering Constantinople. 

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Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate march across the Sahara Desert to Carthage, 647

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Byzantine era Carthage, capital of the Exarchate of Africa

Watch this to learn more about the Battle of Sufetula, 647 (Kings and Generals).

         

As the Arabs directed by Muawiyah continued their raids into Byzantine territory in 648 wherein they had reached as far west as Phrygia in Asia Minor, Constans II knew it was to time to act in defending the empire and this meant not repeating the past mistakes of emperors which even included his grandfather Heraclius who busied himself too much with creating the new doctrine of Monothelitism and trying to consolidate it across the empire while the Arabs were winning victories against them, so Constans here decided it was time to put all the endless religious debates on the natures of Christ aside as there was an even bigger threat, the Arab expansion.

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Coin of Constans II as a young emperor

To solve the entire issue of the religious debates, Constans here in 648 with Patriarch Paul II’s guidance issued a decree known as the Typos that forbade any kind of debates on the natures of Christ that was tearing the religious unity of the empire apart at such a difficult time, but it was to also to stop the persecutions of heretical sects of Christianity that were not seen as Orthodox, though what this decree actually meant was absolutely no more debating on Christ’s natures, and what was already ruled by the Patriarch of Constantinople on Christ’s nature which here was the Monothelite doctrine of Christ having one energy was final, and those who did not abide by this would get their property confiscated or worse, be jailed. Here at age 18, Constans had already shown the full autocratic nature of his reign and how much he had despised the Byzantine senate even if they were the ones that put him in power as a child and had been acting as his regents as he was still quite young, but here at this point even being only 18, Constans already showed to the senate he was capable of ruling alone with absolute power and did not need them at all. By issuing a decree that was to prohibit all religious debates on Christ’s natures, Constans had now become increasingly unpopular with most of the bishops of the empire- except Patriarch Paul II- as it was the bishops’ job to debate on religious matters and these bishops included the Patriarch of Rome or the pope himself, which in 649 was Pope Martin I who had just been elected as pope, though illegally according to Constans II, and just as he was elected as pope, Martin I called for a council in Rome to condemn Constans II’s ruling of the Monothelite doctrine and the Typos itself as it did not allow religious leaders to do their job.

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Pope Martin I

Meanwhile in 649, Muawiyah had already been making some progress as here he had landed in Byzantine controlled Cyprus partially taking the island leaving the other half still to the Byzantines, and for the next 300 years, the island of Cyprus would remain split between Arab and Byzantine control. Constans here when finding out half of Cyprus was lost to the Arabs, he decided to sign a peace treaty with Muawiyah and the Rashidun Caliphate but little did he know that by signing this, this would allow Muawiyah to build his fleet as his intention to capture Cyprus was to build a fleet there that could attack Constantinople by sea. In 650 on the other hand, Constans II now decided to take action on Pope Martin I for violating the decree of the Typos by holding a council that spoke against the decree and for Constans, it did not matter who violated this decree, even if it was the pope, and so here Constans sent a letter to the reigning Exarch of Ravenna in Italy Olympius ordering him to head over to Rome and arrest the pope who was to be brought over to Constans himself in Constantinople. Exarch Olympius then carried out the job and headed to Rome but when there, he failed to arrest the pope as he claimed the pope was too divinely protected as most possibly, Pope Martin successfully convinced him to turn away. Now rather than arresting the pope, Olympius in 650 instead turned on Constans, led his soldiers in rebellion, and declared himself emperor ruling Byzantine Italy as his own state completely independent from the empire. Soon enough, a small Arab army and fleet arrived in Sicily to raid it and here Exarch Olympius headed south to Sicily to counter-attack the Arab force that invaded it but in 652 as Olympius was in Sicily, another episode of the Plague of Justinian from the previous century had broken out killing many there including Olympius himself, as well as most of the invading Arab army, thus the Arab invasion failed. In the meantime, it happened in 651 when the Sassanid Empire completely died out and not with a big event like a large battle, instead the Sassanid Persian Empire only died out here when its last ruler Yazdegerd III at age 27 when continuing his flight east to escape the Arab invasion of the Sassanid Empire was killed outside the city of Merv in the Steppes of Central Asia at the edge of their empire.

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Yazdegerd III, last shah of the Sassanids (r. 632-651) fleeing from the Arabs

It remains unclear on how Shah Yazdegerd III had been killed but some sources say a simple miller killed him to take his jewellery but no matter what was the cause of his death, his death marked the end of the Sassanid Empire that just recently was a dominant world power having been around for 4 centuries since the 3rd century, and with the Sassanids gone after years of civil war and defeats to the Arabs, it was now time for the Arab Caliphate to replace the Sassanids as Byzantium’s new traditional eastern enemy. Though the last Sassanid emperor had died when actually trying to flee east to the Tang Empire of China, he at least had a wife who though unnamed was said to be a Christian and with her they had a young son named Peroz who was also a Christian and not a Zoroastrian like his father, and young Peroz and his mother would at least survive and make it to China, their final destination to seek refuge in.

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Imperial court of Constans II in Constantinople

           

Hearing about the final dissolution of the Sassanid Empire in 651 was not so much a relief for Constans II as all while hearing of this happening, he knew the empire of the Arabs would grow even larger and true enough with Sassanid authority crumbling in their last province of Khorasan (Central Asia), the Arabs were able to also take this entire area, thus wiping the Sassanid Empire out of the map. Now it is about time to discuss a bit about Constans II’s life as an emperor at a young age and his family, and here Constans was now in his 20s but with all the difficulties he faced in his teenage years, he had aged very fast both in looks and in mentality, but this meant that his bitter nature and autocratic style of ruling would increase even more.

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Young Constans II illustration

Historical sources though do not say much about Constans II’s twin brother Theodosius but in this case, let’s just say that now at this point, Constans was growing more suspicious of him even though Theodosius was rather useless and had no potential to be a serious threat, but for Constans- at least in this story’s case- having a twin brother meant potential trouble and even though Theodosius was not really seen as a threat, one day he could be when his soldiers might mistake Theodosius as Constans considering that they looked very much alike even if not identical twins and with this, they could even start calling Theodosius their emperor, forgetting Constans is still around, or possibly Theodosius would one day rebel and take the throne with the excuse that it does not matter who is emperor as both are twins and no one would really be sure who was born first. Historical sources too do not mention about the happenings with Constans’ mother Gregoria at this point, so for this story’s case we could just say Gregoria had retired and had completely left the world of politics, though other than Gregoria, historical sources do not also mention much about Constans’ wife the empress Fausta except that here in 652 she gave birth to her first child with Constans and sticking to the naming tradition of the eldest son named after his grandfather- just how Constans with Heraclius as his real name was named after his grandfather- Constans’ first son was named Constantine after Constans’ father Constantine III, and this Constantine would be the emperor Constantine IV. Now about Fausta who historical sources do not say much about, in this story’s case as mentioned earlier, she was 2 years older than her husband and of Armenian descent as her father, the late general Valentinus was an Armenian, though her mother remains unknown, though in appearance Fausta- in this story’s case- had a strong Armenian or eastern look with large piercing green eyes, tanned skin, black hair, and a short and round stature. In the meantime, Constans II was still not yet finished with his plan to arrest Pope Martin I for disagreeing with his decree, so here in 653 with the previous exarch of Ravenna Olympius dying the previous year from the plague in Sicily, the new Exarch of Ravenna Theodore I Calliopas– who had already previously been Exarch of Ravenna from 643 to 645- was again reappointed by Constans and following his appointment was charged by Constans to again head over to Rome and arrest the pope. This time, Exarch Theodore succeeded in arresting Pope Martin I by sending his soldiers to the pope’s palace at the Lateran Basilica who tricked him into shipping him over to the Greek island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea where the pope when arriving there was thrown into prison, while back in Rome Theodore convinced the Roman bishops to elect someone else as their pope which they did by electing Pope Eugene I in the next year (654).

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Pope Martin I arrested and brought to Constantinople, 653

Later on in 653, Martin I was brought over from Naxos to Constantinople where he was paraded in the streets in chains like a prisoner before confronting Constans II at the Hippodrome who sentenced him to be executed for opposing the emperor’s Monothelite decree as well as being elected illegally, although for Constans Martin I was accused of being elected illegally meant that he was elected without the emperor’s approval. Right when Constans was about to have the deposed pope executed, the dying Patriarch of Constantinople Paul II came to the pope’s rescue and when listening to Martin’s pleas, Paul convinced Constans to not execute Martin but to instead send him to exile in the most remote land of the Byzantine Empire, which was the isolated Peninsula of Cherson or the Crimea (in today’s Ukraine), a cold and desolate Byzantine port colony in the north coast of the Black Sea, as exiling the pope to a warm Aegean or Ionian island would be sending him to exile in some kind of island paradise while sending him to cold Cherson would be a fitting death sentence. As it would turn out, when Pope Martin I was sent into exile in Cherson, he would die soon enough in 655 at age 57, possibly due to the cold and lack of food there but he would still become a saint after his death, whereas Patriarch Paul II would die in late 653.

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Byzantine ruins of Cherson in the Crimea, Ukraine; exile place of Pope Martin I

On the other hand, Muawiyah here continued his conquests of the Mediterranean islands that in 654, he had conquered the Greek island of Kos and afterwards Rhodes, and when in Rhodes the first thing the Arab army did was to clear out the ruins of the famous Colossus of Rhodes, a massive statue of the Greek sun god Helios build in 280BC standing 30m high but over time after several earthquakes, the statue was reduced to ruins, and though some legends say Mauwiyah and his army tore down the Colossus itself, rather when the Arabs arrived, they found it ruins and decided to scrap it to be made into gold coins, and when taking down the ruins, it was said that the Arabs used up to 900 camels to cart off the ruined blocks as the statue was literally that large and the metal that it was made of was that heavy. Hearing of the fall of Rhodes to the Arabs, Constans now felt threatened and decided he had enough and so he put an end to the truce he signed with Muawiyah back in 649 and assembled a fleet in Constantinople to attack Muawiyah’s fleet which had at this point been stationed in the southwestern coast of Asia Minor while at the same time here in 654, he appointed his 2-year-old son Constantine as co-emperor. The Byzantine fleet of 500 ships was fully constructed by 655- the same year Pope Martin I died in Cherson- and the 25-year-old Constans II here decided to lead the fleet himself assuring they would score a victory that way and so the fleet sailed south to the Lycian coast of Asia Minor where Muawiyah’s fleet was stationed. On the night before the battle, Constans II when sleeping in his luxurious cabin in the emperor’s personal ship- according to the Byzantine historian of the next century Theophanes the Confessor– and in this story’s case as well, he had a dream that he was in the city of Thessaloniki and when waking up, he thought this meant he would win a victory as Thessaloniki in Greek meant something to do with scoring a victory, but little did he know that the “Thessaloniki” of his dream meant the other definition of the name which in Greek was thes allo nike meaning “give victory to another”. The next day, the Byzantine and Arab fleets met at a location known as Finike (Phoenix) off the Lycian coast of Asia Minor and here as the sea was rough the battle was fought, and this battle here would be remembered as the “Battle of the Masts”, referring to the masts of the ships.

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Battle of the Masts, Byzantine vs Arab naval battle, 655

The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Arabs despite them having only 200 ships compared to the Byzantines having 500, and although it is not clear on how the Arabs won, in this story’s case the Arab ships being smaller in size were faster thus being able to quickly crash into the larger Byzantine ships, which they quickly boarded, and were soon enough able to outnumber the more heavily armored Byzantine troops in them. Constans himself barely escaped the battle, that according to the same Theophanes, and in this story’s case too, he did a trick he was good at, so he exchanged his purple imperial robes with a young sailor who was about the same age and short stature as him, and while Constans escaped disguising himself as a sailor, the sailor dressed as the emperor was mistaken for Constans and was killed right at the spot by an Arab soldier whereas Constans retreated back to Constantinople in a small ship that had survived. As it turned out, Constans’ dream meant the opposite of what he thought it meant, therefore meaning “give victory to another” which were the Arabs but the following year (656), the Byzantines would have at least some luck as here when Caliph Uthman was assassinated in Medina, conflict broke out between the ambitious Muawiyah of the Umayyad clan and Uthman’s successor Caliph Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad and this conflict would be the first full civil war in this history of the Islamic Caliphates, better known as the First Fitnah.

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Location of Cherson (encircled in black)

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Colossus of Rhodes before the Arab conquest of Rhodes in 654

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Arab fleet (left) and Byzantine fleet (right) engage each other at the Battle of the Masts, 655

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Byzantine and Arab fleets clash with each other at the Battle of the Masts


 

Birth of the Thematic System and the Move West (656-668)       

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With the Arab Caliphate at a civil war with each other, Constans II now used the moment to his advantage in order to focus on restoring some parts of the empire that had been ruined by the previous wars and invasions, and these included the Balkans and Eastern Asia Minor while Muawiyah who was here in conflict with the caliph Ali agreed to not bother Constans and instead to even pay tribute to him.

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Ali, the last Rashidun caliph (r. 656-661), art by Ahmed AbuElnaga

Now focusing on the problems of the empire, the first thing Constans thought about was the economy considering that the loss of Egypt had a heavy blow on the once abundant grain supply for Constantinople and the empire that before it happened once a month that this abundant grain supply from Egypt allowed people in the capital to get free distribution of bread, but with Egypt gone free bread was no longer possible. Although the second grain source which was Carthage was still around and fortunately for the Byzantines, after the civil war between Muawiyah and Ali broke out, the Exarchate of Africa based in Carthage which had become a vassal of the Caliphate since 647 was fully restored to imperial rule, although unfortunately the land around Carthage had already been drying up turning into a desert from over-farming, so the next place the Byzantines looked to for grain supply was Thrace and Asia Minor, although the grain supply in these places weren’t as abundant as Egypt, therefore there would be no more free grain distribution for the people of Constantinople. The next major challenge in the Byzantine Empire other than the economy was the cultural shift from Latin to Greek which was now truly evident in Constans’ time than it was in his grandfather Heraclius’ time, as here the Greek language had almost entirely replaced Latin amongst the people of the empire and in the imperial court, as well as in the army that Latin titles had now been evolving to Greek ones, which was evident even in the imperial court as the emperor was now referred to as the Greek “Basileus” meaning emperor instead of Augustus, or the Greek title Autokrator instead of the Latin Imperator, and a lot of these changes in the Greek language becoming the more dominant one had a lot to do with Heraclius’ reign as he was a native Greek speaker of Cappadocian and Armenian descent, meaning he had more connections to the east while the people he appointed to govern the empire were also native Greek speakers from the eastern provinces unlike before when most high officials of the empire were Latin speakers from the Balkans or western provinces. Constans meanwhile was adapting to the changes in the empire both in geography and in language as well culture quite well, but he was still feeling some kind of connection to the west and the empire’s Roman roots- at least for this story- and here in 658 with the conflict against the Arabs in the east at least put to a halt for now, he decided to turn his attention west to the Balkans which was now completely overrun and settled by the Slavs who were left behind there by their Avar allies who retreated back north sometime after they failed to besiege Constantinople in 626. The loss of the Balkans meanwhile was a heavy blow to the Byzantines as for the longest time, all the way back to the era of the Roman Empire, the Balkans played a major role as the major recruitment ground for soldiers, so now with the Balkans gone, this would mean shortage of soldiers, but again with the pressure of the Arabs coming to a halt here in 658, Constans set off from Constantinople to campaign in the still Byzantine territories of the Balkans.

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7th century Byzantine soldier clashes with a Slav warrior

Here, Constans managed to win a number of victories against the Slavs by defeating a large Slavic raid, and afterwards returned some of Greece to Byzantine rule and after defeating these invading Slavs, his army had captured many prisoners of war which were Slavic warriors, who were then all stuffed into ships and sent over across the Aegean Sea to Asia Minor to be resettled in as the previous wars against the Sassanids and Arabs have resulted in the near depopulation of Asia Minor. In 659, Constans briefly returned to Constantinople to be with his family as by this point his wife Fausta had given birth to two new sons Heraclius and Tiberius, although history does not specify their birth years, so instead for this story Heraclius as the elder one would have been born in 656 and Tiberius in 657, and here in 659 Constans back in Constantinople appointed both sons Heraclius and Tiberius as co-emperors even if they were too young to read and write, and so now there were 4 people with the imperial title being Constans II and his 3 sons, and this for sure would have made Constans’ twin brother Theodosius feel threatened as he was put aside in favor of Constans’ very young sons, but Constans on the other hand never really cared as he always saw that having a twin was a threat, so here Constans began his plans in eliminating his twin brother. After his short stay in Constantinople, Constans travelled to Asia Minor, this time to drive back the Arab forces that had still remained, and due to the Arab Caliphate in conflict with each other, Constans took advantage of the situation and when leading the army himself, he campaigned far into the east of Asia Minor successfully driving away the Arabs. It was in this 659 campaign in Asia Minor where Constans would make his greatest achievement in the history of Byzantium, which was the creation of the Thematic Systems or to put it short, the Themes (Themata in Greek), and this was another change that marked the transition of the empire from Latin to Greek as the names of these new smaller provinces or Themes would be in Greek. History though is not very clear about the formation of the Theme System or if Constans II exactly created it, as others say it was his grandfather Heraclius that did, but many sources still agree that the first 5 Themes or shrunken military provinces of the Byzantine Empire were created under Constans II between 659 and 661, and in this story’s case it will true enough be Constans II that toured Asia Minor between 659 and 661 to create the Thematic System.

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Strategos, Commanding general of a Byzantine Theme

The word “Theme” here does not really have a literal translation but it simply meant the name of a particular area bearing the name of the mobile army that was stationed in it, as each of these new provinces had their own mobile armies assigned to it, and these provinces too were under the administration of their army’s general known as the Strategos, basically a Greek title which replaced the former Latin Magister Militum. Now in these new provinces or Themes of Asia Minor, the soldiers stationed in them were given land of their own in which their children would inherit as well as succeed their fathers as soldiers as a way to ensure their full loyalty as the empire was sure enough running out of soldier recruits with most of the Balkans lost and the remnants of the Plague of Justinian from the previous century still making comebacks. On the other hand, the Slavic warriors that were previously captured in the Balkans were relocated to Asia Minor to be settled as the soldiers for these Themes wherein here they were to marry the locals, though at the same time Constans still encouraged many of the local men of Asia Minor to join the army and had many of the ruined castles of Asia Minor rebuilt as well, which were to be the strongholds for each of the Themes’ armies. It was here at this point that Asia Minor became the Byzantine Empire’s new heartland as it was to now provide both soldiers and food supply for the empire and with the creation of these new provinces or Themes, each of the Themes were to produce their own goods for the empire’s survival whether it was minerals, food, wood, or military equipment while each Theme too had its own foundry to manufacture its soldiers’ uniform weapons and armor.

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Byzantine Thematic army soldier, 7th century

Under Constans II, 4 Themes were created in Byzantine Asia Minor (Turkey) with their own generals in charge of it and with its own capital, and these first 4 Themes were the Anatolic Theme (Anatolikon in Greek) consisting of the central and southern part of Asia Minor in which the eastern army of the empire was stationed in and the city of Amorion was its capital; next was the Armeniac Theme (Armeniakon) which was the largest of the Themes being located in the eastern part of Asia Minor along the border with the city of Amasea as its capital; next was the Thracesian Theme (Thrakesion) in the western coast of Asia Minor where the Thracian army would be based in, hence the origin of its name; and last would be the Opsikion Theme in the northwest part of Asia Minor which here was to be administered directly from Constantinople, and this Theme would be under the most elite army of the empire or the Praesental army commanded not by a Strategos but by a general with the title of Komes, which was an honorary title for a general. After creating the 4 land Themes in Asia Minor, Constans decided to create a fifth one which was this time to be a naval Theme under the imperial navy and marines which was to be the Karabasian Theme (Kibyrrhaioton) in the southern coast of Asia Minor to further protect the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Asia Minor. The first known generals Constans II appointed to be in charge of these Themes included one of Sassanid Persian descent named Saborios, whose name is the Greek version of the Persian name Shapur who would be the Strategos of the Armeniac Theme and another one named Mizizios, an Armenian general who was made the Komes of the Opsikion Theme, the most elite of the Themes. Constans on the other hand before even hitting the age of 30 made a very strategic achievement for the empire that was to prove very effective in the next centuries to come, although still it was not entirely him who came up with the idea of these Themes from scratch but rather his grandfather Heraclius when he saw the provinces of Syria and Palestine lost to the Arabs and Asia Minor as the new core of the empire, though it would be Constans II to put this whole idea into full effect. There is a lot more to explain about the Themes of Byzantium, the Thematic System and how it functioned, and its elite armies being the Cataphract cavalry but that would be for the upcoming stories after this one, but to put it short, it was effective in the way that when both parts of the empire were under attack, one Theme’s army could focus on one side while the other could focus on the other side without having to march an entire army from one far end of the empire to the other, therefore these Themes made it quicker for armies to respond to external attacks.

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Map of the first original 5 Themes of Asia Minor created under Constans II

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Slavic warriors, resettled into Asia Minor by Constans II

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Cataphract cavalry, elite army of the Byzantine Themes

Watch this to learn more about the Thematic System and its structure (Kings and Generals).

      

After being away from Constantinople for 2 years from 659 to 661, Constans returned to the capital wherein he started becoming increasingly unpopular and though it is not really said why, in this story’s case this would be mainly due to his defeat to the Arabs back in 655 at the Battle of the Masts and for being absent from the capital for 2 years despite doing the latter to actually further protect the empire by creating the Themes.

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Caliph Muawiyah I, 1st Umayyad Caliph

It also happened in 661 that the caliph Ali was assassinated in a mosque at the city of Kufa (in today’s Iraq) and with his death died the Rashidun Caliphate as with Ali dead, Muawiyah took over as Caliph ending the civil war and beginning the Umayyad Caliphate wherein he turned the Caliphate into something more politically organized and had also moved the caliphate’s capital from Medina in the Arabian Desert to Damascus in Syria which was more of a threat to the Byzantines as the Arabs’ capital was closer to their borders, although for the meantime, Muawiyah still organizing the new caliphate did not yet have plans to attack Byzantium, thus giving Constans more time to rebuild the ruins of his empire and put the Themes into full effect. Here in 661, Constans II at the age of 30 now had a full and thick square beard in his large round face, which was the first thing to be noticed about him as well as his thick and long curly hair as seen in his coin which too will be a new standard for future Byzantine emperors in appearance, henceforth his nickname Konstantinos ho Pogonatos meaning “Constantine the Bearded” in Greek as true enough he ruled by his real name “Constantine” while his family members and those closest to him still referred to him as the Latin “Constans” or “little Constantine” (Konstas in Greek). Now back to Constans’ growing unpopularity, the people here at this point in 661 started favoring Theodosius over his twin brother and considering that they almost looked a like, the people who hated Constans thought it would not hurt those who favored Constans if they deposed Constans and replaced him with Theodosius as long as Theodosius would grow a longer beard the way Constans has, therefore those who are loyal to Constans would still mistake him for Constans, however it would not really work out as Theodosius still did not have Constans’ brutal and autocratic personality whereas Theodosius was still more relaxed. For this story at least, Constans suspected something wrong about his twin, so let’s say the faction loyal to Constans soon enough knew of the plot by those who opposed him to overthrow him and replace him with Theodosius and so when finding out about this, Constans now knew this was the right time to act against his twin brother and get rid of him for good. History too does not say when Constans and Theodosius’ mother Gregoria died but let’s just say that here in 661 she had already died which now gave Constans every reason to get rid of his twin brother as he would most definitely not do it while their mother was still alive. Having enough of the possibility of Theodosius taking over the throne from him with popular support, Constans without any hesitation had some of the palace guards arrest Theodosius at his quarters in Constantinople’s imperial palace and cut off his tongue, again as a way to make sure he would not try to claim the throne, as again a single deformity like missing a tongue would render him unable to rule as emperor. Constans too thought of simply executing his twin brother but he soon started to think cutting off his tongue was a better punishment as Theodosius had still done nothing wrong that deserves the death penalty that in fact he never even once tried to launch a coup against Constans, and so after getting his tongue cut off, Theodosius was forced to take Holy Orders and become a monk in a monastery outside Constantinople, but little did Constans know that the injury Theodosius received when getting his tongue cut off cost him his life and later on in 661, Theodosius had died as a monk. Constans here would therefore be remembered as the “Bearded Autocrat” or “Constans the Killer” and this would not be it yet for his vicious deeds, although he was at least still very loyal to his wife Fausta and 3 sons but Fausta hearing about Constans’ vicious act that ended up killing his twin brother would soon begin to fall out with him. Each day- in this story’s case- Constans and Fausta would argue more and more that they would stop eating and sleeping together, while Fausta even tried to get her 3 sons Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius away from their father fearing that her sons would follow in their father’s footsteps becoming a bloodthirsty tyrant. Now in 662, Constans had grown tired of living in Constantinople being unpopular with the people and ignored by his family, so here is when he decided to leave the capital again and protect the empire, but here he also began to think about the rather short life he had lived so far, about how he had lost his childhood and teenage years when having to put it aside for the responsibilities of running an empire, about how the difficulties in his early reign of having to face challengers left and right turned him into a bloodthirsty autocratic ruler, and how this kind of personality of his turned his people and family against him. Constans here thought it was time to change his image which is why he decided to head to Greece and protect it as he got word that the Slavs were invading again, and here at this point, the Theme Systems was now more or less fully operational that if Constans pulled out one Theme’s army, the armies of the other Themes could defend that Theme wherein the army had been pulled out, and since the Opsikion Theme was closest to Constantinople with its troops being the elite retinue of the imperial army, he called for this Theme’s army to join him in this campaign. The Opsikion Theme’s general Komes Mizizios, the Armenian noble 8 years older than Constans who was said to be very tall and handsome but at the same time shy and reserved led his troops across the Marmara to meet Constans in Constantinople where he and his troops were to accompany the emperor in his new campaign.

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Coin of Mizizios, Komes of the Opsikion Theme under Constans II

Meanwhile- in this story’s case- the senators Constans sent to China almost 20 years earlier, Alexios and Philippikos had returned to Constantinople with Alexios who left Constantinople in his 40s was now in his 60s and Philippikos who was then in his 20s now in his 40s, and now when returning both reported to Constans about their fascinating journey in this far away land, about how sophisticated the imperial court was in their capital of Chang’an with buildings made with crystal and glass, about the colorful silks worn by its people that in fact even the poorest people there wore silks, and the exotic and tasty food there unknown to the Byzantines such as fisheye that was only reserved for the emperor.

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Women’s fashion in Tang Dynasty China, 7th century

Additionally, the senators told Constans that in China, it were yellow and gold silks reserved only for members of the imperial family unlike in Byzantium where it was purple while there in Tang China, women too were more empowered than in Byzantium and that they were fascinated with the rather peculiar fashion women there wore such as the kind of silk gowns that appeared rather revealing wherein they left their upper chests exposed with only a thin silk robe covering the arms, which thus reflected the empowerment of women there. The senators then also told Constans that their emperor Taizong had agreed to lend them some money in exchange for Byzantine jewelry, although Taizong had already died back in 649 and was succeeded by his son Gaozong, who at this point was still ruling and Gaozong too had agreed to help Byzantium as he too feared the expansion of the Arabs even if it was still far from China. The senators too had told Constans that the last Sassanid heir which was the young Peroz, son of the last shah Yazdegerd III had arrived in China seeking refuge wherein at this point he had already grown up and had built a church there as he was true enough a Christian and there in Tang China, the young Peroz had been training to be a general to command the Chinese imperial forces to one day lead an attack against the Arabs in Central Asia. Constans was intrigued hearing of the stories from what he thought was a parallel world to Byzantium but not wanting to waste time, he asked both senators Alexios and Philippikos to join him in his campaign with Mizizios and the Opsikion army.

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Illustration of Byzantine era Thessaloniki

After setting off from Constantinople by sea, Constans and his retinue arrived first in Thessaloniki, where Constans having dreamt about being there back in 655 before losing the Battle of the Masts would finally step foot there, as true enough dreams usually do predict a future, and as he also remembered that the dream he dreamt meant for him scoring a victory, this time his predication actually came true as here in Thessaloniki, Constans himself leading the Opsikion Theme’s army fought the invading Slavic army with success driving them away from the walls of Thessaloniki. For the rest of 662, Constans together with the Opsikion army, Alexios, and Philippikos for a long time toured the remains of Byzantine Greece as Constans needed this lengthy amount of time to examine the situation in Greece, for he also thought of expanding the Themes beyond Asia Minor by establishing one in Greece too but in his long stay in Greece, Constans recruited more men to the Byzantine army as well which also included the Slavs he had defeated in battle and captured. For the winter of 662-663, Constans set himself up in Athens which at this time was now a ghost town wherein he would start drafting new plans for creating Themes in Greece but by early 663, Constans had now decided to leave Greece and set sail west for Byzantine Italy whereas Mizizios and the Opsikion army, Alexios, and Philippikos joined him once more.   

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7th century Constantinople street life, art by Amelianvs

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Chang’an, imperial capital of the Chinese Tang Empire

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Full coin of Constans II the Bearded including reverse

In 663, Constans and his men set sail from Athens to Italy arriving some weeks later in the port of Taranto in Southern Italy which was still under the Byzantines but right when arriving, Constans following the example of his grandfather Heraclius and Maurice before him, decided to lead his army north to attack the Lombard capital Benevento taking advantage of the fact that the Lombard king Grimoald I left his capital to head north and fight off a Frankish invasion.

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Map of 7th century Italy divided between the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (orange) and Lombards (blue)

In one swift campaign led by Constans and Mizizios, the Byzantines overwhelmed the Lombards in their holdings in Southern Italy taking over a number of fortress before arriving in their capital Benevento facing little resistance there, also considering the fact that it was the mostly elite Byzantine army that was brought over to Italy that made the Byzantines win quite an easy victory here. The Byzantine forces did in fact come so close to taking over Benevento, however a Lombard messenger reached Grimoald I in time to warn him of the Byzantines’ attack and in very little time, the forces of Grimoald arrived to relieve Benevento forcing Constans’ army to retreat, although at least the Byzantines despite losing did not suffer many casualties and were able to retreat to Byzantine held Naples in an orderly way, though a portion of Constans’ army again suffered a heavy defeat when retreating to Naples.

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Lombard army of Italy, 7th century

After a short stay in Naples, Constans now joined by his old friend Exarch Theodore Calliopas- in this story’s case at least- joined him and from Naples, they all headed north and visited Rome which was still under Byzantine hands, making him the first Roman emperor to set foot in Rome since the Western Roman emperors 2 centuries earlier, and the last Roman (Byzantine) emperor to do so for several centuries. At some time in 663, Constans had a 12-day visit of Rome wherein he was greeted personally by Pope Vitalian– the successor of the former pope Eugene I who died in 657- who personally showed Constans, Theodore, Alexios, and Philippikos around Rome, the eternal city and Vitalian was also pleased with Constans for getting rid of Martin I who Vitalian had opposed before. Constans who had still felt Byzantium’s connection to its Roman origins showed a lot of respect for the eternal city that he stopped at every important Roman landmark including the Forum, Trajan’s Column, Baths of Caracalla, and the Palatine Hill Imperial Palace, and wanting to show the people of Byzantine held Rome that he was a much better person than how everyone saw him as, he greeted most of the people he saw in the city in a friendly way, although his soldiers acted differently except for their general Mizizios due to his reserved personality.

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Pope Vitalian

When stopping by the Ancient Roman Pantheon, which had been turned into a church by the Byzantine usurper emperor Phocas who Heraclius overthrew in 610, Constans saw his soldiers looting its valuables and stripping off its copper roof, although Constans despite getting angry at them for doing it still allowed them to do it as long as the loot was to be sent to Constantinople to be minted as coins to further improve the economy and not so long after, Constans’ 12-day stay in Rome was over, so here he proceeded south to Sicily setting himself up in its most important city, Syracuse while Theodore returned north to Ravenna. Constans II’s real intention for setting himself up in Syracuse still remains unclear as some say it could be because he wanted to restore Western Rome’s relevance in Byzantium the way Justinian I a century before him wanted to do as well, or maybe because he remembered his grandfather Heraclius’ possible decision one time to move the capital to Carthage as Constantinople was more at risk to be attacked especially now with the Arabs making Sicily a safer location as it was easier to defend being at the center of the Mediterranean, or rather because Sicily would be a good base to reclaim parts of Byzantine North Africa like Cyrenaica (Northern Libya) and Egypt that were lost to the Arabs, and for this story, it would be for all these reasons why Constans decided to set himself up in Sicily which he would do for the next 5 years never thinking of returning to Constantinople again. Another possible reason why Constans left his family behind in Constantinople to journey alone was to make up for his lost teenage and young adult years in which he spent nonstop worrying about defending his empire, according again to the History of Byzantium podcast, and for this story I would also agree with it that Constans left to at least enjoy life in the warm Mediterranean climate of Sicily, and for this story’s case he true enough would do just that drinking and partying hard with his soldiers. Although when basing himself in Sicily, Constans also decided to raise the taxes to the same levels as taxes were in Constantinople, Byzantine Greece, Asia Minor, and North Africa to make things fair and also to increase the army’s pay, though forgetting that the people of Sicily were much poorer than in the other parts of the empire. Constans here in Sicily would again return to showing how much of an apathetic autocratic ruler he was when he started losing his sanity by nonsensically brutalizing the tax collection on the Sicilians that it was said that the Sicilians had to sell their children to slavery and that women were forced into prostitution just so that they could pay up Constans’ harsh taxes, although most of these were just written by sources hostile to Constans, but in this story’s case with Constans as a villainous ruler, it would be true that all of these were happening for the next 5 years as Constans was in Sicily. Constans in Sicily on the other hand after a time wrote to Fausta in Constantinople asking her to come over to Sicily with their 3 sons, abandon Constantinople, and all settle in Syracuse as the new imperial capital as Constans also knew that with the Themes set up in Asia Minor, Constantinople will still be protected. In 663 meanwhile, as the months passed with the emperor not present in the capital, the Byzantine senate decided to name the 11-year-old son of Constans, Constantine as emperor in Constantinople knowing Constans would not return, although since Constantine was only 11, the same age his father was when becoming emperor, he was to rule under the senate’s guidance but only as co-emperor as Constans still being around was still the senior one.

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White flag of the Umayyad Caliphate

Now back in the newly formed Umayyad Caliphate of Caliph Muawiyah that had just adopted a simple white flag as their symbol, at this point after forming his new caliphate, he resumed his attacks on Byzantine Asia Minor which were carried out by his son and general Yazid, who Muawiyah also named his successor, which was a practice unheard of in the Arab world as a caliph did not inherit his position from his father, but rather was elected by the Caliphate’s leaders but to secure the new Caliphate’s succession, Muawiyah thought it would be better to adopt a hereditary succession like the Byzantines and Sassanids had. With the Arabs back in action again, the newly created Themes in Asia Minor were for the first time put into their full wartime function and here, the Anatolic and Armeniac Themes were able to hold out against the Caliphate’s attacks for a time though from 665 to 666, the Armeniac Theme had become more and more devastated from the Arab attacks which made their troops and their Strategos Saborios think that Constans being in Sicily gave up on the east allowing the Themes there to suffer defeats to the Arabs. In 667, the general Saborios of the Armeniac Theme decided that with Constans away and unable to protect Asia Minor, it was time for him to declare himself emperor against Constans and his family as there was no emperor to protect the east, but rather than continuing the war against the Arabs, Saborios instead asked for an alliance with Muawiyah sending word to Damascus agreeing to even pay tribute to the Umayyad Caliphate and in return Muawiyah agreed to it even sending some Arab troops to back Saborios’ rebellion, and in late 667 Saborios with the Armeniac Theme’s army marched west to Constantinople. In the meantime, the people of Constantinople were beginning to grow worried especially since their senior emperor Constans II had been away for 5 years now while the Arabs were gaining some success in invading Asia Minor, but right at the moment when everyone was starting to think hope was lost, an unlikely Byzantine Greek refugee from Arab occupied Syria, Kallinikos of Heliopolis arrived at young Constantine’s imperial court in Constantinople thinking Constans was there as he had plans of creating a superweapon that could destroy the Arab fleet which only needed the emperor’s approval.

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The Pantheon of Rome, parts stripped down by Constans II’s soldiers in 663

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Constans II in Sicily, art by Amelianvs


The Climax- Constans II Strikes Back (668-675)   

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While Muawiyah’s Arab armies were again putting pressure on Byzantium’s eastern borders and this time actually gaining an opportunity when allying with the usurping general Saborios, Constans was still in Sicily enjoying himself by again drinking and partying every night with his soldiers as well as with Mizizios, Alexios, and Philippikos as a way to make up for not being able to do this in his younger years while the people of Sicily were suffering by having to pay the heavy taxes Constans imposed on them, and with his oppressive way of ruling the Sicilians, they would start referring to Constans as the new Phocas- in this story’s case- the usurping emperor Constans’ grandfather deposed. Another thing Constans had done now in Sicily- which is only for this story- is that he started adopting the Chinese imperial practice Alexios and Philippikos had told him about which the Tang emperor of China Gaozong had done, eating fisheyes, a dish only reserved for the emperor and that everyone else who ate it was to be executed, and here Constans did just that as the Chinese emperor did by having everyone else who ate fisheyes executed that here in 668 he had about 40 people killed whether they were Sicilian fishermen or elites for simply eating fisheyes. The real turning point however for Constans’ life was on September 15, 668 when Constans went to the bathhouse of the imperial palace in Syracuse and here as he bathed, a Greek servant who was the only one in the room that was to scrub the emperor grabbed a bucket or rather a soap dish and used it to assassinate the emperor, which is how the contemporary historian of this time Theophilus of Edessa, who was a Greek working for the caliph described Constans’ death, therefore a very odd way of assassinating someone.

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Assassination of Constans II in real history with the use of a soap dish, 668

In this story’s case however, as the 37-year-old Constans was alone in the imperial baths to enjoy himself on the afternoon of September 15, he had noticed something different in the energy around him after this Greek servant put some soap over his eyes, and as the servant went further away from Constans to grab a soap dish, Constans in his usual paranoia feeling that the soap dish might be used against him got some water to wash his eyes, afterwards when able to see everything, he grabbed the servant by the leg dragging him into the pool whereas the heavy marble soap dish fell into the water sinking. While soaking in the pool water, Constans strangled the servant with his arm asking him if he really intended to kill him, and the servant replied saying he came into the baths to do just that. While Constans strangled him, the servant told him everything about the plot and that killing Constans in the baths was the easiest way since the palace in Syracuse was heavily guarded and the only way to get to Constans up close was to do it in the baths while no one else was around, not even the guards.

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Marble soap dish intended to kill Constans II

The servant too had said that earlier in that day, he got a letter with orders from Caliph Muawiyah in behalf of the Armeniac Theme’s Strategos Saborios in which both wanted Constans dead as Muawiyah feared that now with Constans in Sicily, he could easily take back Arab held Egypt from there as Muawiyah knew that when Constans was younger his forces took back Alexandria for a year, therefore believing Constans had the same intention again, while Saborios wanted Constans dead so he could fully take the throne without opposition believing Constans did not care at all about the eastern border. After Constans learned everything he needed to know form this servant, he strangled the servant to the point of unconsciousness with his bare arm and when knocked out, Constans dragged the servant up to the marble ground where Constans killed the servant ironically by smashing his head with the same marble soap dish meant to kill Constans, and afterwards the guards rushed into the baths as Constans put on a towel.

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Meme of Constans II’s assassination

And now history is fully altered here as Constans II survived his assassination and would continue ruling from Syracuse, but the big mystery now is why and who directed the assassination attempt on Constans II, and others here say it could be the people of Sicily who were totally over with his brutal taxation policy, or it could be some disgruntled soldiers who were tired of being in Sicily for so long and had wanted to return to Asia Minor, but the best reason could be that it was masterminded by Caliph Muawiyah who was given more insider information on the job by Saborios who knew Constans personally, except that Saborios did not know anything about Sicily but rather he knew Constans’ personal schedule, and for Muawiyah, he could sense that Constans was surely going to take back Egypt with Sicily as his base since Sicily was much closer than Constantinople to Egypt and for the Arabs, Egypt too had proved to be a very valuable asset.

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Seal of Caliph Muawiyah I

In this story’s case, Constans being in Sicily had now changed his mind as when he was a young ruler, he thought when Egypt was fully lost in 646 there was no more hope in taking it back, but now the much older Constans was fully intent to take it back as it also meant resuming their trade with India and China due to access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. With Constans now surviving the assassination attempt unlike in real history, he would meet with Alexios and Philippikos in the Syracuse palace where he would once again ask them to return by land to Tang China, this time to ask for a military alliance with Emperor Gaozong to counter-attack the Arabs from the east as Constans here knew from the servant who tried to kill him that Muawiyah was again set to direct more attacks on Byzantium after allying with the rebellious general Saborios, and Constans here even with the Themes did not have much men to face off the full might of the Arabs, therefore if the Chinese forces were to attack the Arabs from the east in Central Asia, the farthest the Caliphate extended to in the east, then this would distract the Arabs making them have to focus their attention east. Alexios and Philippikos then set sail to Constantinople by ship first to inform Constans’ family that he was almost killed but had survived and that they must ready themselves for a full Arab attack, and from there they would sail for Cherson in the Crimea where they would again journey east by land back to Tang China’s capital Chang’an. Now in real history, following Constans’ assassination, his army in Sicily proclaimed their general Mizizios as emperor against his will while in Constantinople, the 16-year-old Constantine IV became the senior emperor, and only when seeing coins with Mizizios’ face on it did he deal with Mizizios by travelling to Sicily himself in 669 to deal with Mizizios’ forces, although the army of the Exarch of Africa loyal to Constans had already sailed north to Sicily where they beat Mizizios’ forces and had already executed Mizizios- despite Mizizios having no part in Constans’ assassination- by the time Constantine IV had arrived there. In this story however with Constans surviving, Mizizios would have no reason to become emperor as he had no ambition anyway as could be seen with his reserved personality, so here Constans with Mizizios would plan their reconquest of the rest of North Africa as well as Cyrenaica and Egypt with the then Exarch of Africa Eleutherios, while the Exarch of Ravenna Theodore- who in real history had died in 666, but for this story’s sake would still be alive- would be put in charge of continuing the defense of Italy against the Lombards.

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Syracuse in the Byzantine era, Constans II’s new capital

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Damascus, capital of the Umayyad Caliphate beginning 661

           

For the past 5 years now, young Constantine IV had been put in charge of Constantinople’s administration while his father was away in Sicily, and in these 5 years, young Constantine had learned to be a strong and competent emperor. In this story’s case, in 668 rather than getting word that his father had been assassinated, Alexios and Philippikos at their arrival in Constantinople instead told young Constantine that his father now intended to divide the empire whereas Constans II would rule from Syracuse and Constantine IV from Constantinople, so therefore Constans in his letter asked Constantine to crown himself emperor, which he did here in 668 at the age of 16, and now Byzantium had 2 reigning senior emperors as Constantine’s younger brothers Heraclius and Tiberius remained as junior co-emperors.

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Emperor Constantine IV, son and successor of Constans II

Apparently, back in 597 when Emperor Maurice got a fatal illness, he thought of this same solution too which was to divide the empire in two parts between his sons, but when recovering shortly after the plan was scrapped, but here in this story it was Constans who now decided to stick to this plan, which was a strategy a lot of Roman emperors in the past had used and while Constantine IV’s half of the empire included the Themes of Asia Minor, over in the west Constans II thought of creating Themes in Italy as well, and part of it was to make the whole of Sicily an entire Theme too; although by 700 in real history, Sicily too became a Theme. Now like in real history, as Constantine IV came into power, here in this case the same would happen when some of the soldiers in Asia Minor would here for this story get some fake news that Constans II had died, so they marched to Constantinople and demanded that Constantine IV rule in equal power with his two younger brothers Heraclius and Tiberius but just as Constantine IV did in real history, he refused to do so in being manipulated and so he had the leaders of these rebellious troops executed after tricking them to meet with him peacefully, therefore beginning his reign in the same autocratic manner as his father, a trait he sure enough inherited, and rather than ruling with his brothers equally, Constantine remained the senior emperor of the east with his brothers only as junior co-emperors. Meanwhile, the larger rebellion of Saborios and the soldiers of the Armeniac Theme had been growing and here by late 668, almost the entire Asia Minor was on his side the moment he was already in the region of Bithynia in the Opsikion Theme very close to Constantinople. Here as Saborios was stationed in the Fortress of Hexapolis drilling his army and waiting for his Arab reinforcement army to arrive, he would meet the same fate as he did in real history, and as Saborios got word that an imperial loyalist army from Constantinople was marching towards them, he mounted his horse right next to the fortress’ main gate but when he got on, his horse suddenly bolted and charged at the gate whereas Saborios slammed his head on the gate as a result of his horse charging. The horse then galloped away while Saborios fell to the ground, and since he had not yet put on his helmet when his head was slammed against the gate, he died a few minutes later from the injury while his army with no more leader just defected to the loyalist forces of Constantine IV, thus Saborios’ rebellion was over, though it was not yet it for his coming Arab allies. Even with Saborios dead, the Arab army led by Muawiyah’s son Yazid was still headed directly to Asia Minor and true enough they were only using Saborios as a way to get to Constantinople themselves wherein if Saborios took over the throne with Arab support, he would only be Muawiyah’s puppet but with Saborios gone, the Arabs had every reason to take Constantinople for themselves. As for Constantine IV here in 669, he would have no reason to head over to Sicily like in real history as his father had not been killed, therefore Mizizios would not rise up in rebellion, instead Constantine IV would have to focus with the happenings in Asia Minor as here in 669, 5,000 Arabs under Yazid’s command reached as far as the Anatolic Theme taking over its capital Amorion, although soon enough like in real history, the army of the Anatolic Theme liberated their capital driving the Arabs away. At the same time, Muawiyah like in real history sent a fleet to attack Sicily and Carthage in 669 and in this story’s case, it would be for the reason of stopping Constans from launching an attack on Egypt, although Constans with Mizizios by his side here would easily defeat the Arab fleet sent against them. Back in the east, Yazid who was still around commanding the fleet in 670, like in real history was able to capture the port of Cyzicus in the Marmara Sea which was very close to Constantinople, and intended to be used as a base to construct a larger fleet for the attack on the capital. In 672, the Arabs would now make more progress when the fleet of Yazid had captured the port city of Smyrna in the Aegean to be used as another base to build more ships for their grand assault on Constantinople.

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Greek Fire sticking on water

In Constantinople meanwhile, Constantine IV was growing even more worried but here Kallinikos the engineer would demonstrate to him the new weapon he had created which was a kind of brass cannon that was able to blow out some kind of sticky liquid fire that was operated with a kind of pump, but the secret was its chemical ingredient being naphtha, sulphur, and resin which was to be ignited with this mechanism, and Constantine only agreed to use it if its exact formula and procedure was a secret to be kept between both of them and the elite naval force that was to operate it only. Late one night in 672- in this story’s case at least- both Kallinikos and Constantine tested this weapon on the shores of the Marmara and to their surprise, it worked as the fire emitted from the cannon did stick to the water for a time as was intended.       

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Strategos Saborios leads the army of the Armeniac Theme in rebellion, 667-668

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Umayyad army led by Yazid in Asia Minor, art by Marwan Musa

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Byzantine Smyrna, captured by the Umayyads in 672

         

For the entire year of 673, both Byzantines and Arabs had been preparing for the grand battle to come, therefore Constantinople was still safe even if the Arabs in 673 had already captured some of the southern coast of Asia Minor including the city of Tarsus; although in this story’s case with Constans II still alive and Syracuse as his capital, he started feeling the need to go back to Constantinople, just to save it from the upcoming Arab attack. Just like in real history, the grand battle here would come in 674 when the Arab fleet and army themselves under the command of Yazid besieged Constantinople both by land and sea, and this Siege of Constantinople went on for 4 years (674-678) intermittently as the Arab forces would pause every winter retreating back to their naval bases in Cyzicus and Smyrna, as winters were something alien to the desert born Arabs, thus every time spring came, the Arabs would resume their attacks. There are not that much sources on this 674-678 Siege of Constantinople, but it was clear that things had not come to any results until 677 when Constantine IV decided to lead the fleet himself head-on against the Arabs, and this would be where the secret superweapon Greek Fire would first come into use and in 678, the Arabs being unable to continue the attack due to the power of Greek Fire had fully retreated, and on their retreat they were heavily defeated once again by the Byzantine fleet off the coast of Lycia in Southwest Asia Minor. On the other hand, while the Siege of Constantinople was ongoing, Constantine IV was too busy defending capital that he could not put his attention to other parts of the empire and true enough, Thessaloniki with most of its troops having to march to Constantinople to reinforce it was left poorly defended when the Slavs besieged it in 676, although when the Siege of Constantinople was over by 678, the Slavs too have abandoned their attack on Thessaloniki.

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Constantinople at the 1st Arab Siege, 674

In this story’s case on the other hand, the Siege of Constantinople would play out in a much different way considering that Constans II here was still alive, although when it would begin in 674 he was still absent from Constantinople, thus leaving the 22-year-old Constantine IV to lead and supervise the defense of the city himself, and here he would be extremely nervous as this would be the first time he was to lead his army in a full scale battle against about let’s say 50,000 Arabs while the defending Byzantine forces only numbered up to let’s say 15,000 but luckily in the case of this story, the superweapon of Greek Fire was already built and its engineer Kallinikos was to be by Constantine’s side the whole time as the weapon in this battle was at Constantine’s imperial ship.

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Greek Fire operated from the imperial ship

Feeling nervous about what was to come, Constantine motivated himself by remembering how his grandfather Constantine III at only 14 helped lead the defense of Constantinople in 626 against the Avars, Slavs, and Sassanids, and after feeling some sense of motivation, Constantine encouraged his younger brothers Heraclius and Tiberius as well his mother Fausta- in this story only- to all take part in defending the city. By April of 674 like in real history, the Arab fleet from Cyzicus sailed up the Marmara arriving in Constantinople’s south shore, and unlike in real history when Constantine IV confronted them only in 677, here he already led the fleet head-on against the incoming Arab fleet of Yazid the moment the Arabs arrived. Here at this moment, Greek Fire would first be used against the enemy ships, and it would turn out it would be fully effective as the sticky flames would not only stick to the water but burn down the smaller wooden Arab ships too, but what was even more devastating was its fear factor as when the flames began to burn the ships and water, the Arab soldiers panicked and jumped off into the water drowning to death. Again like in real history, the battles here would go on each day, pausing at night, and again resuming the next day to the point that the Arab infantry had already disembarked from their ships and began scaling the walls, though Constantinople’s walls as usual would still be too impossible for the Arab forces to fully scale due to their height, number of towers, and the number of soldiers defending them as it turned out more troops were assigned to the walls than in the sea, and it was also in the walls where Fausta, Heraclius, and Tiberius would be rallying the troops despite not going into action themselves. As the weeks had gone by, the battles still continued with no clear result to the point that the Byzantines had been losing hope, but just when they all thought hope was lost, as Constantine looked south into the Marmara, he saw a large fleet consisting of 300 Byzantine ships, and as it would turn out this was his father Constans II himself leading a reinforcement fleet together with Mizizios to relieve Constantinople. In their approach, thousands of flaming arrows fired by Byzantine archers from these ships flew across the sky into Yazid’s ships further burning them and soon enough, these larger Byzantine ships crashed straight into the smaller Arab ships destroying them. Constans would then see the other imperial ship where his son was at and when seeing a streak of flames fired from it against a larger Arab ship, Constans was amazed at the sight, but at the same time he kept cursing in Greek as he could not believe what he just saw.

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Coin of Constans II with his son Constantine IV

Having dealt enough damage here and as the days were getting colder as the year progressed, Yazid ordered his entire army and fleet to retreat. As the Arab forces and ships were retreating, Constans now had the chance to get off his ship and board his son’s ship, where they would now reunite after not seeing each other for almost 12 years, and here the 44-year-old Constans barely recognized his son who was now fully grown up, as the last time they had seen each other, Constantine IV was only 10. As the days would now go by, the Byzantines had noticed that they were no longer under attack, therefore the people of Constantinople had begun rebuilding the damage caused by siege, but soon enough they had noticed the days would turn into weeks, and weeks into months with no more attacks against them from the Arabs when the year 675 came.

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Greek Fire used against an Arab ship at the 674 Siege of Constantinople
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The 5th century Theodosian Land Walls of Constantinople, art by myself

Now in this story’s case, the main difference here in the 674-678 Siege of Constantinople was that here it was over in its first year, and not having to go on much longer for 4 more years like in real history, and the reason for this scenario happening in this story was not only due to the still alive Constans II coming in time to assist Constantinople, but by also making a fictitious alliance with the Tang Chinese emperor Gaozong.

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Gaozong, Tang Chinese emperor (r. 649-683)

Back in 668, after Constans survived the attempt on his life, he sent the senators Alexios and Philippikos to China and as it turned out when back there again, they were able to successfully convince Gaozong, the emperor there to amass an army over the next 6 years, and only by 674 were they completely ready to march west and distract the Arabs who were attacking Constantinople by forcing them to turn east and face off an attack by the Chinese forces. At this point, the last member of the Sassanid ruling dynasty, Peroz who had been living in Tang China was already grown up in his 30s and now a powerful general in the Chinese army who had been trained to fight in the ways of both the Chinese and of his own Persian people and in this story’s case, it would be Peroz dressed in his Sassanid imperial armor that would lead a total of 100,000 men west from China into the border of the Umayyad Caliphate in Central Asia, and these 100k would consist of Chinese infantry and cavalry including war elephants, as well as Sassanid Persian refugees dressed up once again in their own Persian armor and ready to bring the fight to the Arabs to avenge their fallen empire’s twin defeats to them at Al-Qadisiya in 636 and Jalula in 637.

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Tang Chinese imperial army

Word of the caliphate’s eastern border under attack would first reach Caliph Muawiyah in Damascus who would then send word about it to his son Yazid who was camped with his army in Smyrna, and here in 675 just when Yazid was preparing to set sail to Constantinople again to continue the siege, he got word from his father that the eastern border in Central Asia was under attack, and the worst part he heard was that it was under attack by the Sassanids, the very enemy the Arabs thought they had completely crushed. Believing that the Sassanids were planning to reclaim their empire, Yazid with his army instead of continuing on besieging Constantinople would immediately rush east where the Sassanid refugee forces and their Chinese allies were already making progress being already in what is today’s Afghanistan, very close to the Sassanid heartland of Iran which the Arabs now held. Before the winter of 675-676 would arrive, Yazid and his very tired forces after marching such a long distance from Asia Minor all the way east to Central Asia for months would confront the fully energized 100k army of Peroz at Bactria (Afghanistan), where due to being exhausted would lose to the combined Sassanid and Chinese forces, although Yazid would still survive retreating back to his father in Damascus never wanting to lead another campaign again after losing almost his entire army in the east. Peroz meanwhile after winning this entirely fictional victory would not anymore try to reclaim the Sassanid Empire even if he was the son of the last Sassanid emperor, instead he would return to China to continue loyally serving Emperor Gaozong, as here Peroz never really wanted to reestablish the Sassanid Empire, instead he only chose to fight the Arabs as he wanted to show that the Sassanids would make up for all the harm they had brought on the Byzantines for the past centuries, and by defeating the Arabs here, the last of the Sassanids did indeed redeem themselves to their old enemy. Although in reality, this kind of battle would happen in the next century (751) where the Arab and Chinese forces would clash in battle in Central Asia. Back in Constantinople, the days would still go by without an Arab attack, and as an entire year went by in peace, it was concluded that the Arab siege was over. Constans II meanwhile remained in Constantinople for most of 675 reuniting with his family, and although his wife Fausta would still be angry at him for abandoning them back in 662, she would at least forgive him as Constans still came back at the last minute to relieve Constantinople from the Arab siege, and as Constans saw his two younger sons Tiberius and Heraclius again, he was surprised to see how much they have grown and now as young adults, both brothers looked very different from each other (as they are depicted in Constantine IV’s mosaic in Ravenna) whereas the older one Heraclius very much resembled his mother with tanned skin as well as thick and curly dark hair, while the younger one Tiberius looked a lot more like his father and eldest brother with lighter hair and lighter skin.

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Mosaic of Constantine IV (right) with his brothers Heraclius (first to the left) and Tiberius (2nd to the left), Sant’apollinare in Classe, Ravenna

In Constantinople, Constans would congratulate Constantine for his bravery and success in the defense of Constantinople and for the creation of Greek Fire, and at the same time Constans as the most senior emperor would congratulate the weapon’s architect Kallinikos too. Constans too would tell Constantine the whole secret on why the Arabs had no longer showed up, and this was because if it were not for Constans asking the Chinese emperor to send an army to attack the Caliphate, then the Arabs would have not turned their attention east and would instead return to attacking Constantinople. Constantine would then thank his father for doing just that, and just before Constans was to return back to Sicily, he confirmed with Constantine that the empire was to now be fully divided with two capitals, Constantinople and Syracuse although when Constans would die, Constantinople would remain as the superior capital where Constantine would rule from, and Syracuse as the inferior one where Heraclius and Tiberius would rule from after the event of Constans’ death. Constans too had settled a divorce with Fausta with the approval of the current Patriarch of Constantinople here Constantine I, and after concluding the divorce Constans would leave by ship to Sicily for good while his general Mizizios would return to the Opsikion Theme in Asia Minor he was in charge of to continue being its Strategos, and with Constans gone again, Constantine IV was now the senior emperor of the eastern half of the Byzantine Empire ruling from Constantinople.

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Sassanid forces in Central Asia returning to the fight the Arabs, 675 (in this story’s case)

Aftermath and Conclusion            

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The much older Constans II now was clear that he never wanted to rule from Constantinople again and after returning to Syracuse, he was to never return to the main imperial capital despite being the most senior emperor. However, for Constans when returning to Constantinople coming to the rescue when it was under attack, he knew he had done his part in making up for all those years he was absent from his family, and what was even more honorable of him here was that he came back right in time to save his family at the moment when their end was about to come, but now when doing what he needed to do to redeem himself for his family, he returned to Sicily enjoying himself alone away from his family once again, while he also thought it was for the best to divorce Fausta as after all, his marriage to her when he was only a child was only for a political alliance with Fausta’s father Valentinus who turned out to be a traitor anyway. In this entirely fictional scenario of Constans surviving his assassination back in 668, in the following years as he based himself in Syracuse, he would actually end up turning Sicily itself into a new Byzantine Theme, though back there Constans would still never really change and continue being oppressive in his ruling style and taxation. By 679, for this story’s case at least, Constans would achieve his greatest dream which was the Byzantine reconquest of Cyrenaica and Egypt using the 300 ships that helped him defeat the Arabs in Constantinople, and here all of Cyrenaica would be recaptured, though for Egypt it would only be Alexandria and the northern coast that would return to Byzantine rule, while the Arabs would still remain in the rest of Egypt. However, a portion of the abundant grain supply for Constantinople would still resume, though by losing the coast of Egypt, the Arabs deep within Egypt would have a more difficult time communicating with their imperial capital, Damascus.

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The Umayyad Mosque of Damascus, built under Caliph Muawiyah I

As for Constantine IV in Constantinople, with the siege not going on until 678 as it did in real history, he would use the following years after 675 to rebuild the imperial capital and due to the success of Greek Fire, he would now make it a permanent wartime weapon, though it would still be a state secret wherein its formula and procedure would be only revealed to members of the elite naval force and to those in the line of succession to the imperial throne, while the weapon’s architect Kallinikos would be appointed as the empire’s chief military scientist working in the imperial court. Like in real history, the Arabs would suffer major defeats too after they lost the Siege of Constantinople, except here in this case the Arabs were defeated a lot earlier before 678, though here they would do the same as they did in real history after being defeated, which was Caliph Muawiyah in 679 agreeing to humiliating peace terms with Byzantium which included paying an annual tribute of 50 slaves, 50 horses, 3,000 pounds of gold, and returning the Aegean islands including the port cities of Smyrna and Cyzicus which the Arabs had recently captured from the Byzantines. What would be different for this story though is that with the Arab Umayyad Caliphate losing heavily both at Constantinople and in Central Asia, their weakened armies would no longer have much interest to fight and so would their defeated general Yazid, and soon enough with the ports of Mediterranean Egypt lost, the Arabs would eventually lose all of Egypt to the Byzantines. Caliph Muawiyah in this story like in real history would also die in 680 realizing from his failure that it was impossible to breach into Constantinople, and at his death he would be succeeded by his son Yazid as caliph just as Muawiyah had planned. As for the diplomat senators Alexios and Philippikos, they would choose to remain in the imperial court of China at Chang’an where they would serve the Chinese emperor Gaozong as Byzantine ambassadors to strengthen relations between both empires, and there they would introduce some Byzantine customs to China and vice-versa. Back in Italy, the Exarch of Ravenna Theodore I Calliopas- who in real history died back in 666- for this story’s case had already died by around 673 while the empire was already split in half. Constans II on the other hand in this story’s case would die in 680 before hitting the age of 50 and ironically, he would die in the same baths of Syracuse’s imperial palace, although this time not anymore by being smashed in the head by a servant like in 668 in real history. Instead, Constans here when alone at the baths would suffer a heart attack and pass away within minutes 12 years after his death in real history, and he would only be found dead in the baths later as his servants entered the baths for cleaning. Constans’ body would then be sent to Constantinople where he would be buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles- where he was really buried in 668- and his funeral would be presided over by Constantine IV, although since Constans II was never really popular, had abandoned Constantinople for Sicily, and ruled in an oppressively autocratic way, his funeral would not be mourned by many but due to the fact that he relieved the city from the siege 5 years earlier, there would be at least some mourning for him. Following Constans II’s death, Constantine IV now as the most senior ruling emperor would honor his father’s plan in dividing the empire in order to fully protect all sides of it and continue their holding onto Italy, thus he would send both his younger brothers Heraclius and Tiberius to Syracuse to rule together as both were already co-emperors since 659, while Constantine IV would rule as the most superior of them from Constantinople, which was to still remain the main capital.  

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Coin of Emperor Constantine IV

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Court of the Umayyad Caliphs in Damascus

           

Now with Constans II having survived the assassination attempt on him and therefore successfully moving the capital to Syracuse, coming right in time back to Constantinople to relieve it from the Arab siege, further masterminding a heavy defeat on the Arab armies by conspiring with the Tang Chinese Empire, and later on dying from natural causes, on the other hand the same happenings too would happen for Byzantium in Constantine IV’s later reign as it did in real history. A lot of things Constantine IV had done as emperor were still mostly achievements, like for instance the 3rd Council of Constantinople between 680 and 681 which was finally able to solve the controversy of the Monothelite doctrine Constans II and his grandfather Heraclius before him strongly supported that even led Constans II to go as far as arresting Pope Martin I in 653 for opposing it.

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3rd Church Council of Constantinople headed by Constantine IV, 680-681

Here in this story, like in real history, Constantine IV would succeed in solving the issue by looking back at the ruling on the natures of Christ from the Council of Chalcedon back in 451 and afterwards reaffirming them, and for both successfully defending Constantinople from the Arabs and solving the Monothelite controversy once and for all, Constantine IV would become more popular than ever- as he was in real history- and gaining so much popularity, he would be hailed as the “New Constantine the Great”- the first Byzantine emperor (r. 306-337)- and the “New Justinian the Great” and coincidentally, Constantine IV here at this point was married to a certain Anastasia and already had a son named Justinian who he was training to be his successor, but in this story’s case to rule from Constantinople.

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Emperor Constantine IV of Byzantium

Tragically for Constantine IV by 681 like in real history, his health already began to fail despite his young age, which historians say he could have been suffering from cancer. In real history however, Constantine IV in 681 following in the footsteps of his father in mutilating his twin brother in 661 had both his younger brothers Heraclius’ and Tiberius’ noses cut off to prevent them from succeeding to the throne as a sure way to secure young Justinian’s succession, though in this story’s case this incident would not happen as Heraclius and Tiberius got their chance to rule the empire already from Syracuse where they would busy themselves continuing the campaign against the Lombards in mainland Italy. The other real event that too would happen in this story’s case was the first major invasion of the Bulgar hordes from the steppes of Russia led by their ruler Khan Asparukh across the Danube into Byzantine territory in 680 while Constantine IV was busy heading the Church Council. Again like in real history, Constantine IV here would lead the armies of the 5 Themes north to confront the Bulgars in 680 as well but at the middle of the campaign would suffer a bad illness due to his unspecified chronic sickness, thus making him have to retreat back to Constantinople leaving his army to confront the Bulgars, and without Constantine commanding them, the army like in real history would panic as their emperor had left, thus suffering a defeat to the Bulgars at the Battle of Ongal in 680.

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Khan Asparukh, First ruler of the Bulgarian Empire (r. 681-701)

Like in real history, Constantine here in 681 would have to acknowledge the creation of the first Bulgarian state ruled by Khan Asparukh in what was the Byzantine province of Moesia in the south bank of the Danube, and here is when the story of Byzantium’s northern neighbor and greatest enemy and ally at different times, the Bulgarian Empire begins. Constantine IV though would not lose his popularity for his defeat to the Bulgars, but in addition for this story’s case too like in reality, he would create the Theme of Thrace based in Constantinople to further protect the valuable province of Thrace, the empire’s capital region from the rise of the Bulgars who had now gained their own state subjugating the Slavic locals there. History though does not say what Constantine IV had been doing after 681 but it is most likely that he had been putting the Themes of Asia Minor his father created and the Theme of Thrace he created into full effect in case the Umayyad Arabs would come back again, but it is highly possible that Constantine was not so active anymore after 681 due to his failing health. In this story, Constantine IV would die just 5 years after his father on September 14, 685 at only 33 like he did in real history and would be succeeded in this story’s case as the emperor in Constantinople by his now 16-year-old son Justinian II while his brothers Heraclius and Tiberius would still remain in Sicily. The reign of the passionate and ambitious yet tyrannical and evil emperor Justinian II now would be a story for another time, although here like in real history, Constantine IV for successfully defending the capital and finally solving the issue of Monothelitism would become a saint after his death. Now the big question at the end of this story is what will happen to the Umayyad Caliphate after being defeated even more than they were in real history and if the establishment of Syracuse as the second Byzantine capital was worth it, however the answer to both cannot fully be told in a simple way but to put it short, all I can say is that even when defeated, the Umayyad Caliphate was still around and would still one day return to action, and for the Byzantines having 2 capitals with their own emperors just as the empire did before 476, they would be able to focus on both sides of their empire as in the east the Theme System would soon enough be fully prepared and functional if ever the Arabs rise again while in the west, the emperor ruling from Syracuse could focus on the problems there and restore Byzantine rule to Italy which had been neglected with the growing threat of the Arabs in the east. Now to simply put it, Constans II’s decision to make Syracuse a capital was to prove effective especially since this would help the Byzantines slowly regain control of the Mediterranean again, and therefore not spiral down in the sense of rapidly losing lands, and this is how this move to Sicily could change the course of Byzantine history.         

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The coming of the Bulgars, Khan Asparukh and his Bulgar hordes arrive in Byzantine territory, 680

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Flags of the armies of the Byzantine Empire’s Themes, to be developed from here on, art by Amelianvs

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Full mosaic of Constantine IV with his brothers and son Justinian II (leftmost) in Sant’Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna

Watch this to learn more about Constantine IV (Eastern Roman History)

And now I have reached the very end of this story but before I finish, I have to mention about creating this and why Constans II is for me such an interesting historical figure to the point of dedicating an entire fan fiction story to him. Now as you may know, this fan fiction article happens to be an extremely long one and I have to admit it was a very long and tiring process writing it as it required an extensive amount of research and considering that my favorite history related Youtube channel Dovahhatty had only reached as far as the end of the Great War with the Sassanids by 630, I had to go the long way to put this story together by watching several documentary videos on this era from rather more scholarly channels like Kings and Generals, Eastern Roman History, and Thersites the Historian, as well as listening to the History of Byzantium Podcast, and in fact even reading more scholarly research works in order to get the whole story of 7th century Byzantium. When completing this story, I also discovered that I have now entered unchartered territory as in the entire history of Byzantium, I am not entirely familiar with the 7th century which on the other hand is not as well documented as the 6th century Byzantium of Justinian I or the later eras, and what made this much more challenging to write was that I put it all together. At the end I also realized that there is a lot more to discover about Byzantium even if I am still more or less familiar with its entire 1,100 year history and as it had turned out, the 7th century is surely an interesting but very crucial time for Byzantium as this was when things just changed in a blink of an eye wherein almost half of its imperial territories it had in the 6th century was lost as the Arabs out of the blue expanded, and in only a few decades already came so close to ruling almost the whole known world putting Byzantium in the defensive position for the next 2 centuries to come considering the arrival of the Bulgars at the end of the century too. The other crucial part for Byzantium in this century was the changing of their geography with the creation of the Thematic System and the drastic cultural shift from Latin to Greek, and more importantly the end of the golden age or rather the age of antiquity and the beginning of the Dark Ages. Not to mention, the 7th century too is in fact a very tiring era to read and write about with all the endless wars and shifting of borders, but the new creations of this era including the Thematic System and Greek Fire makes its story very interesting at the same time. It is for the reason that the 7th century was such a crucial time in Byzantine history that this chapter had to be a really long one, but no matter how long it was I still wanted it to go full circle, which is why I ended it with the return of the Sassanids to make up for the harm they did to the Byzantines in the past by indirectly helping them against the Arabs. As for the part of Constans II, I had to choose him as the lead character for this story out of all the emperors of this century because I find his story and more particularly his odd choice of suddenly wanting to move the imperial capital to Sicily very interesting. Constans II too is an emperor who I believe has a very complex personality as at the same time as being the kind of strong emperor with a dictatorial style of rule, he was still more or less a visionary who saw the need to take extreme measures to ensure the survival of his empire. At the same time, I cannot also blame Constans for ruling in such an autocratic way by purging all those he saw as a threat including the pope and his twin brother because he ruled the empire in a very difficult time when it was at the verge of extinction to the Arab Caliphates. On the other hand, it is also hard to judge Constans’ character as he grew up with so much stress being only 11 when coming to power yet having to face a very troubled empire, so no matter how much people bash Constans for ruling in such an autocratic way, he should also be admired as he came to throne at such a young age ready to face the burden of ruling an empire at the verge of extinction. I also have to say that it was also exciting to particularly write this chapter (chapter IV) of this Byzantine Alternate History series as this article has somewhat a different approach not just centering on the lives of the Byzantine rulers and people, but on the political and geographical situation of a larger world at this time, and at the same time not only on the world of the Byzantines but of the Arabs Caliphates, Sassanids, and Imperial China too, together with other people too like the Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, and Lombards, and when planning out this alternate history fan fiction series, I always wanted to write about the unknown Chinese angle in Byzantium, and now I got the chance to do so. At the end, the result for this story happened to be a kind of dystopian Byzantine epic featuring a severely weakened, troubled, and shrunken Byzantine Empire at the state of perpetual war, ruled by an autocratic dictator emperor, and having new kinds of unthinkable technology being Greek Fire compared to the past 3 articles featuring a stronger Byzantium being the dominant world power. Now this chapter is only the beginning of this dystopian Byzantine setting as it is the end of the early Byzantine era and entry point to the Byzantine Dark Ages which the next 2 chapters of this series will be part of, so the next 2 chapters of this series will be when Byzantium will be at its lowest points having to constantly fight on the defensive against the expansion of the Arabs before the coming of the 10th century when the Byzantines would turn the tide of war, this time finally fighting on the offensive against the Arabs ready to conquer everything they have lost to them since the setting of this chapter in the 7th century. Up next, in chapter V of this Byzantine Alternate History series, in the 8th century the Arab Umayyad Caliphate will strike again this time even stronger than before whereas Carthage will even fall to them, while the new power of the Bulgars in the Balkans would rise up as well, and Byzantium this time would be very close to extinction due to external pressure and internal conflicts until Leo III, another unlikely savior emperor again with a very complex personality would come to the rescue, although the next story will rather center more on Artavasdos, the man behind Leo III’s rise to power who too will become emperor for only a year (742-743) before meeting his end, though the next chapter of this series will explore what Byzantium would be like if this very unknown emperor would have ruled much longer, but of course as the rule of this series, there will be no continuity from the fictional ending of this story to the where the next one will begin. Well, this is all for chapter IV of Byzantine Alternate History, this is Powee Celdran, the Byzantine Time Traveller… thank you for your time!        

Next Story: Byzantine Alternate History Chapter V- 8th Century

Byzantine Alternate History Chapter I- Roman Victory over the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople, 378

Posted by Powee Celdran

Disclaimer: Although this is a work of fiction, it is largely based on true events and characters. It seeks alter the course of actual events that transpired in the 4th century AD.

So intense was Valentinian’s wrath, he burst a blood vessel in his brain. His legacy would be that of the last strong western Augustus to rule an empire at peace, however the true catastrophe was yet to come.” -Dovahhatty, Unbiased History: Rome XVII- Imperial Wrath

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Welcome to the Byzantine Alternate History series by the Byzantium Blogger! This article will be the first part of an article series I will be making this year featuring a scenario in Byzantine history and discussing an alternative outcome to it, basically a what if in Byzantine history. For this series, I will come up with 12 different what if stories in Byzantine history featuring one per century in its 1,100-year existence and I will start this series off with the 4th century, the same century where the story of the Eastern Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire begins. To give you all an idea of what this new project of mine is, I am basically going to experiment on rewriting events in Byzantine history, especially major turning points to see how different their history will turn out to be if a particular event went the opposite direction from what actually happened in real history. In this 12-part series I will be writing some articles alone, and some others with other Byzantine history fans like myself, though for this one it will just be myself writing it. Take note here that each article in this series will be a stand-alone piece and will have no continuity with each other. This one being the first chapter of a 12-part series will be featuring the Gothic War from 376-382 and the devastating defeat of the Eastern Roman army to the massive numbers of the invading Goths at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 which resulted in the settlement of the Gothic tribes within Roman territory beginning the gradual collapse of the Western half of the Roman Empire ending with the fall of the west in 476 due to many more conflicts with the Goths and other barbarians following the Roman defeat in 378. Now what if the story of the Gothic War went the other way around wherein the Romans of the combined Eastern and Western Empires at that time won and defeated the Goths? Will this literally change the course of history?

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Flag of the Byzantine Empire

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Note: Since the story is set in the 4th century before the fall of Western Rome (476), Byzantine characters will be referred to as Romans not Byzantines.

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Map of all Barbarian invasions into the Roman Empire, 100-500AD

In the long history of Rome, the Romans faced many defeats such as to the Parthian Persians at Carrhae in 53BC and to the Germanic Tribes at Teutoburg Forest in 9AD but these defeats were only shocking moments that weakened the strength and pride of their superior military power and not devastating enough to actually result in the downfall of the Roman civilization the way the Battle of Adrianople in 378 did. In real history, we know that in 375, Valentinian I, the last strong and great emperor of the western half of the Roman Empire died out of his own anger after failing to negotiate with invading Germanic tribes, and the following year after his death, Gothic hordes numbering up to 200,000 suddenly invaded the Roman border of the Danube River which was part of the eastern half of the Roman Empire ruled by Valentinian I’s younger brother Valens, as this multitude of Goths were seeking for asylum within Roman territory fleeing their homeland in Eastern Europe from a mysterious and deadly enemy that had the power to destroy civilization coming from the east, which were the Huns of Central Asia. The Gothic hordes of the Thervingi and Greuthungi tribes were granted asylum in the Eastern Roman Empire but their numbers proved too impossible for the Roman authorities to feed leading the Goths to rebel and for the empire to declare war on them eventually culminating in the catastrophic Battle of Adrianople on August 9, 378 not so far away from the Eastern Roman Empire’s capital Constantinople wherein the Gothic army severely outnumbered the Roman army resulting in the death of the Eastern Roman emperor Valens in battle. Following Valens’ death and the Roman defeat, the Goths were free to roam around the empire raiding it until they were eventually subdued by the new eastern emperor Theodosius I, who however did not literally defeat the Goths and send them back to their homeland in the north but instead made a deal with them that had the Goths settled in the Roman Empire as federate subjects, but eventually this plan would not work out too well as this settlement of the Goths into the Roman Empire allowed the Goths and later other barbarian settlers from beyond the empire the opportunity to rebel against Rome and establish their own independent kingdoms within the empire, thus leading to the collapse of at least the Western Roman Empire. On the other hand, sending the Goths back to their homeland in Eastern Europe was out of the question since the Huns have already been constantly making raids into it and the Goths had no such power to stand against them, but if united with the Romans they possibly would; and true enough the Goths that had settled in Roman Gaul becoming the Visigoths would actually one day join forces a century later in 451 when the Huns finally came to the point of invading the Western Roman Empire and with the combined forces of Romans and Goths, the Huns were weakened and eventually driven away, although this is totally different story for another time. Though the Gothic War with Rome beginning 376 had some positive outcomes like when the Goths eventually joined forces with the Romans against the Huns defeating them in 451 but on the negative side, the settlement of the Goths in the empire after 382 caused the Western Roman Empire to slowly slip away to the control of the growing power of the Goths who would quickly transform from tribes to kingdoms such as that of the Visigoths and Ostrogoths.

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Flag of the Western (red) and Eastern (purple) Roman Empires combined
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Map of the Gothic War in the Balkans, 376-382
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Guide to the late Roman army’s structure; this article contains a lot of terms of late Roman army units, art by myself.

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The Fall of Western and Eastern Rome Compared

Gothic War Related Videos:

Unbiased History: Rome XVII- Imperial Wrath (Dovahhatty)

Battle of Adrianople 378- Roman-Gothic War Documentary (Kings and Generals)

Ranking the Emperors of the Valentinian Dynasty (Eastern Roman History)


What inspired me to do an article about the Gothic War out of all events in the 4th century was my favorite Youtube channel on Roman history Dovahhatty in Episode XVII of his Unbiased History of Rome series entitled Imperial Wrath wherein Valentinian I’s death caused by his own anger in 375 was shown, and here Dovahhatty narrates saying that after Valentinian’s death, “the true catastrophe was yet to come”. This part here made me come to think that if Valentinian had survived, would this help in preventing the catastrophe to come? And so now I have come up with a story revolving this what if scenario. Now this article will be focused on the what if scenario wherein the Goths were defeated by the Romans in 378 at Adrianople and sent back to their homeland. It will also dive into other possible scenarios that could alter the course of history in the late 4th century such as if the western emperor Valentinian I lived after 375 and did not die out of his own anger, therefore he would be around to help his eastern co-emperor and younger brother Valens in the east the moment the Goths arrived in 376 whereas in real history, with Valentinian I dead, the west was passed on to his young son Gratian, who still training to be a stronger emperor was late to send reinforcements to help his uncle in the east. Now if Valentinian I who was known to be a strong military emperor with a great anger towards the barbarian enemies of Rome was still alive to help Valens in the east against the Goths, would this result in the Roman Empire actually being spared from the large-scale threat of the Goths? On the story of this Gothic War however, there are not much primary sources from the era except for the Roman historian and former soldier Ammianus Marcellinus who writes about the conflict in detail but only from the Roman perspective. In this article, I will do my best not just to tell the story of this Gothic War from the Roman perspective of the co-emperors Valentinian I and Valens but also from the side of the Goths and their leaders Fritgern, Alatheus, and Saphrax and in addition, I will explore and experiment on possible scenarios in this conflict which would be that what if the Gothic forces of the Thervingi (later Visigoths) and Greuthungi (later Ostrogoths) were actually more united and had more of an objective rather than being just raiders looking for land and wealth and instead being fully committed to destroying Roman civilization, which means that the Goths would have to take a Roman hostage which would be no other than the future emperor Theodosius I- in real history- as in order for the Goths to be able to beat the Romans they would need someone to help them understand Rome’s fighting techniques, therefore making Theodosius betray Rome and take the side of the Goths. This article too will include one fictional character fused into the historical setting of the Gothic War which will be a female Goth leader and warrior named Valdis, and I would do the same as well in blending in a fictional character for the following parts of my series as this new series I am doing aside from being an alternate history series will also be a historical fan fiction wherein I would experiment by exploring on and playing around with the stories of some existing historical characters and adding in some fictional elements and events in history that could have happened but we’ve never seen happen, and in this case it would be Valentinian I and Valens joining forces in battle which could be vital in helping the Romans win against the Goths as another reason for the Roman defeat was because of the disunity between the eastern and western halves of their empire which came to see themselves as competitors wherein they were actually one empire despite each half having its own emperor. This story will then end discussing the possible outcomes of the Romans winning the Battle of Adrianople and how the empire would be different if the Gothic threat was dealt with. The 4th century in which this story is set in was a very crucial time for the Roman Empire being a time of religious debates and controversy as it saw Christianity rising while at the same time it faced major waves of barbarian invasions and migrations from the north and a chronic war with their mortal enemy, the Sassanid Empire in the east but since the main focus of this story will be about the Gothic War in the late 4th century, it will focus less on the happenings all over the empire, and rather more the subject of battles and warfare of this era and on this particular conflict. Basically, this first chapter fo this series will be basically more or less a war epic more focused on the warfare of this time rather than the complex political and religious situation this age- the 4th century- was known for. On the other hand, I would also like to thank the artists (Amelianvs, Giuseppe Rava, HistoryGold777, and Roman Emperors) whose works I’ve chosen to add into this story to add more visuals to its 4th century setting in the distant past.


The Leading Characters:

Valentinian I the Great- Western Roman emperor

Valens- Eastern Roman emperor and brother of Valentinian I   

Fritigern- Chieftain of the Thervingi Goths

Gratian- Western Roman co-emperor and son of Valentinian I  

Theodosius the Elder- Western Roman general

Theodosius the Younger- Eastern Roman general and son of Theodosius the Elder

Athanaric- Rival Thervingi Goth chieftain of Fritigern

Alatheus- Co-Chieftain of the Greuthungi Goths

Saphrax- Co-Chieftain of the Greuthungi Goths

*Valdis- Greuthungi Goth leader (fictional character)

Alavivus- Thervingi Goth leader

Lupicinus- Eastern Roman general in Moesia

Maximus- 2nd in command to Lupicinus  

Valentinian II- Son of Valentinian I and future co-emperor

Justina- Western Roman empress, 2nd wife of Valentinian I

Flavius Merobaudes- Western Roman general  

Richomeres- Western Roman general

Sebastianus- Eastern Roman general

Profuturus- Eastern Roman general

Trajan- Eastern Roman general

Flavius Bauto- Western Roman commander

Arbogast- Western Roman Comitatus soldier

Flavius Stilicho- Western Roman Comitatus soldier  

Flavius Anthemius- Eastern Roman Comitatus soldier  

Sueridus- Thervingi Goth warrior

Colias- Thervingi Goth warrior  

*Genseric- Chieftain of the Quadi (real character but unnamed, therefore I gave his name) 

Character Images Below

Background Guide: Western Roman characters (red), Eastern Roman characters (yellow), Thervingi Goths (blue), Greuthungi Goths (red orange), Quadi (green).


The Background- The Real History

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In the 4th century, the Roman Empire despite coming out of a long 50-year period of crisis- the Crisis of the 3rd Century (235-285)- still covered a vast amount of territory north to south from Britain to Egypt and west to east from Portugal to the Caucasus Mountains but with a territory so large, this meant that enemies would be attacking from all sides as in the east, the Roman Empire shared a border with a powerful hostile neighbor, the Sassanid Persian Empire, to the north of the empire were several Germanic tribes including the Goths who at this time have been settling in Eastern Europe and have been long-time enemies with the Romans since the mid-3rd century but far to the northeast, a mysterious and deadly power was expanding and coming closer and closer to the Roman Empire. This rapidly expanding power were the Huns, an unknown warlike race of people from deep within Central Asia that were expanding westwards into Europe displacing several people that settled there such as the Gothic tribes that settled in what is today’s Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland. The Roman Empire had not yet felt the presence of the Hunnish threat of the east, but instead they felt it in waves coming in the form of several invasions of barbarian Germanic tribes through the empire’s Rhine and Danube River borders. The 4th century was a crucial time of change for the Roman Empire as it was here when the Roman Empire was first divided into 4 quarters with their own emperors in what was known as the Tetrarchy which eventually led to a series of civil wars between its divisions until these civil wars were put to an end and the divisions united again as one empire by Emperor Constantine I the Great (r. 306-337) in 324.

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Emperor Constantine I the Great (r. 306-337), founder of Constantinople

At the same time, it was also in Constantine I’s reign that Imperial Rome went through a very major transition which was the rise of the Christian religion as under Constantine I’s Edict of Milan in 313, the Christian faith was now finally no longer outlawed but tolerated and practiced all over the empire, and true enough it had grown so fast to become the dominant religion of the empire even though just some years earlier, Christians under the co-emperors Diocletian (r. 284-305) and Galerius (r. 293-311) of the Tetrarchy were severely persecuted. Constantine I also had the legacy of organizing the Council of Nicaea in 325 which established the official statement of beliefs for the Christian religion known as the Nicene Creed and in 330, Constantine I too rebuilt the port town of Byzantium in the European side of the narrow Bosporus Strait between Europe and Asia- founded by the Ancient Greek hero Byzas of Megara in the 7th century BC- into the Roman Empire’s new capital renaming it Nova Roma or “New Rome”, although his people stuck with calling it Constantinople meaning “Constantine’s city” as it was in only 6 years (324-330) transformed by Constantine I from a small port town to an imperial metropolis.

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Emperor Constantine I the Great lays the foundations of Rome’s new capital Constantinople

Now the old capital Rome which was founded back in 753BC, ever since the second half of the 3rd century was no longer in use as the empire’s capital due to its distance from the borders where all the action was, and even though Rome had great historical value, its location was not strategic as well. While moving the capital east to Constantinople, Constantine I too had relocated many important families from the Roman Senate in Rome to Constantinople as well, together too with the best minds from Rome to the east. Constantine I’s move to the east was mostly due to the reason that there was more trade opportunities, riches, and purpose of being in the east, though also because Constantine having some Greek origins felt the Roman world needed to shift its attention east, also because a lot of Rome’s traditions and beliefs were influenced by the Greeks.

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Emperor Constantine I the Great, art by HistoryGold777

Other than that, Constantine had also introduced a new standard gold currency for the empire known as the Solidus, which would be the type of coin the Romans from here on would be using, while he also finalized the restructuring of the Roman army from entire legions consisting of thousands of men to more legions consisting of less men, and in his lifetime he fought many wars against both imperial rivals or foreign invaders and never lost any battles, but no matter how great he was, he was not able to completely solve the division in the Christian Church that had been growing in his time and although he was able to establish the official creed for Christianity and declare the other division known as Arianism that opposed the creed as heresy, the Arian division of Christianity still thrived and it was only at his death in 337 that Constantine was actually baptized as a Christian and ironically by an Arian bishop, therefore making him be baptized as an Arian Christian. At Constantine I’s death, the Roman Empire was once again divided and this time into 3 among his 3 sons Constantine II the eldest taking the westernmost provinces of Gaul, Hispania, and Britain; the youngest one Constans I taking Italy, Illyria, Pannonia, and most of North Africa; while the middle son and most able ruler of the 3, Constantius II took the entire eastern half of the empire which was based in Constantinople, the new capital. The 3 brothers began their reign after their father’s funeral by putting their uncles which were Constantine I’s brothers and their sons which were their cousins to death in an event known as the “Massacre of the Princes” so that the reign of the sons of Constantine would be unchallenged, however only 3 cousins were spared due to their young age. The 3 brothers however would end up in conflict with each other and in 340, the eldest brother Constantine II feeling that as the eldest he deserved the largest piece of territory demanded the lands of his youngest brother Constans I, and when Constans refused, Constantine II invaded Italy but was killed in battle against Constans’ forces thus all of the late Constantine II’s lands were passed on to his youngest brother but in 350, a division of Constans I’s army led by the general Magnentius revolted and killed Constans leaving Constantius II to deal with the usurper Magnentius resulting in a war lasting for 3 more years. Constantius II eventually defeated the usurper Magnentius in 353 and now ruled the entire Roman Empire alone.

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Emperor Constantius II (r. 337-361)

Constantius II too happened to be an Arian Christian, and the Arians though still believing in the Christian faith denied the divinity of Christ believing that the Father was more superior to the Son, while Nicene Christianity believed that both the Father and Son were God. However, it was not only in the Roman Empire where the Arian heresy was spreading among the people as at the same time as Constantine I and his son Constantius II ruled the empire, beyond the Danube borders in Eastern Europe, a Greek priest from Roman Asia Minor of the Arian Christian faith named Ulfilas who was taken as a captive by the Goths at a young age and raised as a Goth spread Arian Christianity among the Goths in the lands of Eastern Europe beyond the empire’s borders. In the process of converting the Goths to Arian Christianity, Ulfilas knowing the Goths’ language translated the Bible from Greek into it as well as developing the Gothic alphabet based on the Greek one and at some point later on, Ulfilas returned to the Roman Empire to be ordained as an Arian bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia, the same Arian bishop that baptized Constantine I in 337. With Ulfilas as a bishop, Arian Christianity continued spreading among the Goths, but a large number of Goths still stuck to their old Pagan religion and a certain chieftain of the Thervingi Goths from today’s Romania named Athanaric who was a devout Pagan began persecuting his Christian subjects, and here Ulfilas would flee from the Gothic lands and disappear from history never to be mentioned again.

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Map of the Roman Tetrarchy, 293-324
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Map of the Roman Empire reunited under Constantine I, 337
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The Roman Empire divided among Constantine I’s sons Constantine II, Constans I, and Constantius II following Constantine I’s death, 337
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Map of the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire
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Ulfilas spreads Arian Christianity among the Goths, 4th century

Back in the Roman Empire, during the reign of Constantius II (337-361), a young soldier named Valentinian (born Flavius Valentinianus), a native of Roman Pannonia (today’s Croatia) rose up the ranks first in the imperial bodyguard unit of Constantius II in Constantinople and later in the Roman field army of the west, where in 355 he served in the army of Constantius II’s western Caesar or junior emperor which was his young cousin Julian who was one of the 3 spared cousins and the son of Constantine I’s half-brother Julius Constantius– who was killed by Constantius II’s orders in 337- in defending the border of the Rhine River from the invading Germanic Alemanni tribes, however at some point in 355, Valentinian was falsely accused of being responsible for the Romans’ defeat to the Alemanni which resulted in him being dismissed from the army by the emperor Constantius himself. Now speaking of Valentinian’s background, he originated in the town of Cibalae in Southern Roman Pannonia born on July 3, 321 during the reign of Constantine I and Valentinian’s father was a Roman-Illyrian soldier of low birth named Gratian the Elder who rose up the ranks from a common soldier to a high-ranking officer under Constantine I and his son Constans I (r. 337-350), the emperor of the middle portion of the empire then, and when climbing up the ranks earlier, Gratian was able to purchase an estate in Pannonia (today’s Croatia, Serbia, and Hungary) where his sons Valentinian and Valens (Flavius Valens)- born in 328- grew up and growing up, both Valentinian and Valens were educated not only in civil and military matters but in painting and sculpting as well but when growing up in Pannonia, it was Valentinian that was deeply bothered by how exposed their area was to barbarian invasions considering that the province of Pannonia was at the frontier of the Roman Empire along the Danube and due to his frustration towards the constant threat of barbarian invasions into Roman Pannonia, Valentinian decided to join the army at a young age in the late 330s in order to fight the barbarians that deeply bothered him and nothing would define Valentinian more than his anger towards barbarians which explains why he had such a hot and violent temper to whoever provoked him. Between 355 and 357, when Valentinian was dismissed from the army, he returned to Pannonia but this time retired to his new family estate in Sirmium (today’s Serbia) where he eventually married Marina Severa and in 359 when he was back in the army- this time serving as a cavalry commander of the elite imperial guard force of the Palatini in Gaul again under the Caesar Julian- Valentinian’s son Gratian named after Valentinian’s father was born. In 360, the Caesar Julian in Gaul who was popular with his troops was declared Augustus or senior emperor by his army in Lutetia (today’s Paris) in opposition to the reigning Augustus in the east Constantius II, thus signalling a declaration of civil war but in 361 before Constantius could meet Julian in battle, he died in Cilicia (Southern Asia Minor) of a sickness at age 44 declaring his cousin Julian, his last male relative as his successor and following Constantius’ death, Julian was the sole ruler of the Roman Empire setting himself up in Constantinople as he had already marched east with Valentinian part of his army.

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Julian crowned Augustus in Paris, 360

Part of Julian’s Palatini or elite imperial guard force by the time he became the sole Augustus in 361 other than Valentinian was Valentinian’s younger brother Valens and another Roman-Illyrian named Jovian. Though the emperor Julian as a highly learned philosopher was a Pagan that renounced Christianity in which he was born into, making himself be known as “the Apostate”, he also tolerated Christians making sure no religion was favored over the other and so to show this, both Jovian and Valentinian who were Nicene Christians were appointed to high military positions. Julian’s reign however lasted for less than 2 years as in 363, he led a large military campaign against the Sassanid Persian Empire in the east intended to defeat Persia and joining Julian were both Jovian and Valentinian in his elite forces though Julian split the army with his maternal cousin Procopius, but when Julian arrived at the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (today’s Iraq), Procopius did not and when waiting for Procopius’ men to arrive, Julian’s army was ambushed by the Sassanids and having no time to put on his armor, Julian rode into battle and was suddenly and mysteriously impaled by a flying spear from a Persian soldier and mortally wounded, Julian died soon enough on June 26, 363 saying that the Christian faith has won, thus his dream to return the empire to its Pagan past had failed.

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Emperor Julian (r. 361-363) before his death by a flying spear, art by Amelianvs

As Julian died suddenly in battle without naming an heir, the army being confused with no emperor in place decided to elect Jovian who was the imperial guard’s commander as their next emperor as being in this position made him the closest person to Julian. Procopius’ army though still did not arrive and Jovian feeling unready to continue the fight against the Sassanids chose to buy time and wait for Procopius to arrive and continue the war but Procopius never arrived so he was left with no choice but to agree to a humiliating peace with the Sassanid Persian emperor or Shah Shapur II who was a long-time enemy of Rome since Constantine I’s reign and this peace Jovian signed with Shapur demanded that the defeated Romans surrendered all the lands they conquered from the Sassanids in the past years back to the Sassanids, including all of Northern Mesopotamia and Southern Armenia in exchange for the Romans to return home unharmed.

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Shah Shapur II of the Sassanid Empire (r. 309-379)

Jovian agreed to surrender these lands but also successfully requested a condition for this agreement that all Christians in these areas taken back by the Sassanids would be allowed to return to Roman lands and when Jovian led the retreat back to the empire, this was the only time he met up with Procopius again and as for Shapur II, he honored the terms and allowed the Romans to return home even if he actually planned of killing every last man in the Roman army but the eastern border of Shapur’s massive empire was also threatened by the same Huns that threatened the Goths in the north, and if Shapur continued the war against the Romans, he would not have enough men to send to the east to fight off the Huns.

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Emperor Jovian (r. 363-364)

Jovian though returning alive to the empire was highly mocked by the people of Antioch with offensive graffiti targeted at him for having no claim to the throne as a common soldier, though Jovian returned to the Christians their privileges taken away from them by Julian, but Jovian too did not last long in power and after Antioch on the return trip to Constantinople, he appointed Valentinian to be in charge of a fort in Asia Minor and charged a commander of Frankish origin named Flavius Merobaudes with burying Julian’s body back at Constantinople but before making it back to Constantinople, Jovian died in his sleep in the town of Dadastana in Asia Minor in February of 364 of carbon monoxide poisoning as he slept in a room with newly painted walls with a lit brazier so close to the walls that it released the walls’ toxic fumes suffocating him. With Jovian dead, the army again had to look for a replacement to fill in the power vacuum and being the nearest most competent general, Valentinian was elected by the army as the new emperor.

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Map of Julian’s Sassanid Campaign, 363
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Romans against Sassanid Persians in Julian’s campaign of 363, art by Amelianvs 

When arriving back in Constantinople, Valentinian I at age 43 accepted the acclamation of emperor but knowing he could not rule the entire empire alone and to prevent further succession crisis, Valentinian one month later named his younger brother Valens who was 36 at that time and still in the imperial guard in Constantinople as his eastern co-Augustus- also so that Valens would not rebel one day for being left out- and it was already tradition at this time that the Roman Empire was to be divided ever since Emperor Diocletian’s division between east and west in 286. Although the west and east had different emperors with Valentinian and Valens respectively, no matter how much both halves would see each other as competitors, it was still one empire with the same armies and military structure, and generals in the west could be assigned to provinces in the eastern half and vice-versa, while people could still travel the whole empire without any restrictions.

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Coin of co-emperors Valentinian I (left) and Valens (right)

Though both brothers Valentinian and Valens were close to each other, they still had many differences, most notably it was that the older brother Valentinian was a stronger military man who was impulsive by nature with a bad temper and believed that all barbarian enemies of Rome could not be reasoned with and therefore have to pay in blood, while Valens was good and friendly in nature but at the same time tough but lacking the impulse his older brother had making him not quick to decide in a critical moment; other than that their biggest differences was that they were of the 2 rival branches of Christianity as Valentinian was a Nicene Christian and Valens was an Arian. When both brothers became co-emperors, this would be the last time they would see each other in person, at least for the meantime and in 365, Valentinian had already made Mediolanum (Milan)- as done usually by previous emperors- as his capital for the west where he ruled as the empire’s more senior emperor whereas Valens stayed in Constantinople. However just one year into power, Valens’ indecisive personality would already show and this happened in 365 when the former emperor Julian’s maternal cousin Procopius who led the other division in the Persian campaign 2 years earlier came out of nowhere, rebelled against Valens who was not present in Constantinople at this time, and declared himself emperor of the east taking over Constantinople itself with his claim of being the last relative of the Constantinian Dynasty but not in blood as he was only related to Julian in the latter’s mother’s side, though Procopius also claimed that Julian before leading the campaign secretly named him his successor in case Julian died.

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Procopius proclaimed Eastern Roman emperor in 365, art by Amelianvs

For Valens who was in Asia Minor at the time of Procopius’ rebellion, he took an entire year to crush it as the first army he sent to Thrace was easily defeated by Procopius’ forces and Valens unsure of what to do sent a letter asking for help from his brother who thought of helping but word of the Alemanni Germanic tribes raiding the Rhine border in Gaul forced Valentinian to focus on his half of the empire first before helping his brother. Valentinian though did not arrive to help his brother in the east making Valens already come to the point of contemplating abdication and even suicide when the armies in Western Asia Minor supported Procopius but a year later (366), he was at least was able to defeat Procopius’ forces and order Procopius’ execution but what turned out to be worse than Procopius’ rebellion was that Procopius allied himself with the Goths beyond the Danube river, though the Goths did not arrive in time to help him, instead they came late and crossed the Danube border and pillaged their way through Thrace a year after Procopius’ death (367).

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Emperor Valens and the Gothic king Athanaric settle peace at the Danube, 369

Valens marched north from Constantinople and was able to push back the Gothic horde of 30,000 back to the Danube forcing the Goths led by their leader Ermanaric to surrender, although Valentinian in the west not trusting the Goths sent a letter to Valens telling him to not accept their surrender and declare war as Valentinian could see the Goths would become a bigger menace one day if they were not dealt with by war so Valens with his army crossed the Danube into Gothic territory, again beating the Goths and forcing them to flee further north. The conflict ended in 369 when Valens and the other Gothic leader which was the same Athanaric mentioned earlier signed a peace treaty at a boat in the middle of the Danube.

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Emperor Valentinian I the Great (center) with his Palatini legions, art by Amelianvs
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The Roman Empire divided between Valentinian I in the west (purple) and Valens in the east (pink), 364
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Constantinople, new capital of the Roman Empire’s eastern half since 330

As for Valentinian I in the west, he was busy doing what he did best, protecting the empire from barbarian invasions on all sides but the worst that was to happen for Valentinian was in Britain in 367 as the previous wars in the past years weakened Roman rule in Britain making Roman traitors there conspire with the Picts, Hibernians, Franks, and a new enemy being the Saxons of Germania to invade Britain on all sides and loot everything they find in exchange for sharing the looted wealth with the Roman traitors. Between 367 and 368, the Picts invaded Roman Britannia from the north (Scotland) when the traitors guarding Hadrian’s Wall at the border of Roman territory with the land of the Picts up north were bribed by them, the Hibernians of Ireland then invaded by sea from the west, and the Saxons and Franks invaded by sea from the east coming from Northern Germany and by the time Valentinian was informed of the situation in Britain, the Romans had already almost lost all of the island but Valentinian would not let it happen so he sent his best general, Count Theodosius the Elder, a native of Roman Spain to retake Britain and joining Count Theodosius was his son, Theodosius the Younger who was training to be a general as well under his father.

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Map of the Great Conspiracy barbarian invasion of Roman Britain, 367

After sailing from Gaul, Theodosius the Elder and his army arriving in Britain set themselves up in Londinium (London) and from there, Theodosius the Elder in one swift campaign was able to take back the whole island and drive away, arrest, and execute all the conspirators who planned to make Roman Britannia fall and once the conflict in Britain known as the “Great Conspiracy” was solved, Count Theodosius returned the wealth stolen by the raiders back to their owners and Northern Britannia was renamed Valentia in honor of Valentinian. Valentinian at this time was more in Trier than in he was in Milan as it was closer to his objective in fighting off barbarian raids in the Rhine border and in 368, Valentinian himself led an army into the heartland of Germania to battle the Alemanni wherein he was successful and to keep the Alemanni tribes away, he ordered Roman forts built across the Rhine in the Alemanni’s territory which of course angered the Alemanni people making them want to negotiate with Valentinian who refused which made them destroy the forts which in return made him even angrier. With the Alemanni attacking the Rhine border again, Valentinian sent word to the Alemanni’s mortal enemy, the Burgundians to attack the Alemanni but the Burgundians too asked for negotiations with Valentinian to give them land in exchange for helping him, but Valentinian again not wanting to negotiate with barbarians refused and so the Burgundians did not do as they were told, instead it was left to Theodosius the Elder to invade the lands of the Alemanni which he did by passing through Raetia (Southwest Germany).

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4th century Roman Mediolanum (Milan), capital of the western empire

Meanwhile in 370, Valentinian’s wife the empress Marina Severa and mother of their son and heir Gratian who happened to be a bisexual woman was attracted to another woman who she had been acquainted with while at the baths in Milan, this woman was Justina, a relative of the late emperor Julian and Marina was greatly struck with her beauty due to see her full physique while bathing, that Marina asked her husband to make polygamy legal for him to marry Justina in order for Marina to be close to her. Polygamy was definitely illegal in the Roman Empire even before Christianity became dominant and even more so with Christianity now having a major role in the empire, but soon enough Marina died and Valentinian married Justina as wished by Marina, and with Justina Valentinian had another son named Valentinian II and after him 2 more daughters while Gratian as the imperial heir was mostly based in Trier the whole time. Though the threats to Valentinian’s western empire did not only come from the Germanic tribes as in 372, a Roman client Berber prince in Numidia (North Africa) named Firmus rebelled against the corrupt Roman governor there and responding to this, Valentinian sent Count Theodosius again who was in Germania south to North Africa to deal with the rebellion and having experience in crushing revolts as he did in Britannia during the Great Conspiracy, Count Theodosius succeeded in North Africa by arresting the corrupt governor, defeating the rebellion, and executing Firmus.

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Sample Roman fort build across the Danube border

In 373, as Valentinian in the west and Valens in the east did the same in building forts beyond Roman borders, more Germanic tribes across the Danube including the Quadi were provoked to attack the empire and this time the Quadi allied with the Sarmatian hordes and raided into Roman Pannonia where the 2 Roman legions sent to quell the invasion failed to cooperate with each other making the Sarmatians rout them. In 374, to the south of Pannonia another Sarmatian horde with their Quadi allies broke through the eastern half’s Danube border into the province of Moesia (Serbia) but this invasion was quickly dealt with and repelled by the Dux or general of the army there, Count Theodosius’ son Theodosius the Younger now a general after gaining experience in Britain years earlier, but after such hard work in defending Moesia, Theodosius the Younger was displeased as he was not given any honors or credit by either Valentinian or Valens for his achievement. When hearing that the barbarian conflict shifted from the Rhine to the Danube, Valentinian set out from Trier to the Danube leaving Gratian in Trier and at this time appointed the same half-Frankish officer Merobaudes that buried Julian years ago to the rank of Magister Peditum or top commander of the infantry. In the Danube, Valentinian continued the war against the Quadi and Sarmatians but soon saw he had enough of war so he finally agreed for a peace negotiation meeting with the Quadi.

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Germanic Quadi tribe

On November 17, 375 the Quadi leaders led by a certain Genseric– not a fictional character but since he is unnamed, I gave him his name for this story- met Valentinian at his camp in Brigetio (in today’s Hungary) along the Danube wherein it was agreed that the Quadi would be allowed to leave in peace if they supplied young recruits into the Roman army, however when the Quadi leaders met with Valentinian personally, the leaders told Valentinian the whole truth that they attacked the Danube all because they were provoked by the fortresses Valentinian had built, and this negotiation with the Quadi only made Valentinian grow more and more angry especially since they were insulting him and knowing that Valentinian would not stop harassing them by putting military presence in their lands, the Quadi leaders told it straight to Valentinian’s face that they would refuse the terms of the treaty. The attitude of the Quadi however only fuelled Valentinian’s anger more as for his whole life, he had had enough of the barbarians ever since growing in Pannonia, fighting wars with Julian against the barbarians, and constantly defending Rome from them in his reign. The Quadi and the Palatini bodyguards of Valentinian could see how intense his anger was that his face was turning red and was already coming so close to having a fatal seizure. Before this burst of anger could end his life by popping a blood vessel in his brain, his Palatini guards rushed to him and stopped him from exploding, therefore Valentinian fell to the ground almost unconscious and here is where the course of history is altered.

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Picts invade Roman Britain in the Great Conspiracy, 367
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Soldiers in a late Roman era fort

The Gothic War (375-378)

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In reality, what we know is that after getting so enraged after negotiating with the Quadi, Valentinian gave in to his anger and died after bursting a blood vessel in his brain but in this story, let’s say the Palatini guards came in time to stop him from giving in completely to his anger. Now after the Palatini came to his aid, Valentinian fell into the ground almost unconscious due to his fit of rage and the Quadi leaders including Genseric meanwhile who were still in the fort’s boardroom saw for themselves the full wrath of Valentinian which was enough to scare them to submission, therefore they finally agreed with the peace terms and decided to flee back to their homeland or suffer severe consequences. Valentinian luckily had a doctor with him in his camp at Brigetio who advised Valentinian to get some rest as that fit of anger almost killed him while in the next day, the Quadi leaders have left ordering their men to abandon their invasion and true enough the threat of the Quadi and their Sarmatian allies had vanished. As Valentinian used the next few weeks to rest and calm himself down in his own quarters at the fort by taking time to cool down by fishing and exploring the woods and not attending meetings with his commanders, his doctor also told him to save his rage for another time when it is most needed as at this point the whole empire, both east and west really depended on Valentinian as if he died, his son Gratian was too young and unprepared to rule effectively and Valens in the east could not be able to rule such a massive empire alone. Valentinian then came to realize that he shouldn’t have gave in fully to his anger as he could sense that there would be more wars to come not just in his part of the empire but in Valens’ east, and Valentinian knew that his younger brother was not tough enough the way he was to face a full scale war and if Valentinian was dead, Valens would be helpless.

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Gratian, son and co-emperor of Valentinian I

Now in reality, with Valentinian’s death in 375, this created something like a power vacuum in the west as Gratian though already an Augustus and not Caesar was not overall experienced due to his young age so the Magister Peditum Merobaudes exploited Valentinian I’s death to make himself in charge of the empire by making Valentinian’s 4-year-old son with Justina Valentinian II his puppet emperor as Merobaudes having Frankish barbarian blood could not be accepted as a Roman emperor, although despite Valentinian II being made Augustus, 16-year-old Gratian still maintained himself as the senior emperor of the west, but the most senior emperor of the whole empire here would be Valens as he was the oldest of the 3. However, in this case with Valentinian I staying alive after his rage, he would still be the empire’s most senior emperor while Gratian who had been his father’s western co-Augustus still stayed as co-Augustus, except here since Valentinian II was still too young, he would not receive any imperial titles yet, instead Valentinian I would soon enough discover Merobaudes’ treachery in planning to make young Valentinian II his puppet emperor and in the process framing Count Theodosius in North Africa for treason as Merobaudes always envied him. In reality, after Valentinian I’s death, Merobaudes true enough framed Count Theodosius who he envied ordering the latter’s execution in early 376, thus this led to Count Theodosius’ son Theodosius the Younger fearing the same fate of his father to retire from military service in Moesia and return to his native Hispania to start a family but in this case with Valentinian I still alive, Valentinian would return to Trier to reunite with Gratian and here he would call Merobaudes to answer for his own treason in plotting against him and Gratian.

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Valentinian I and his pet bears, art by Roman Emperors

Valentinian I did not respond well to treason and Merobaudes would be proven guilty and as a punishment, Merobaudes would be fed alive to Valentinian I’s pet bears named Golden Camel and Innocence as it was known that Valentinian in his reign executed traitors in the army and government by feeding them to his bears which were kept in Trier, and here the half-Frank Merobaudes would suffer that fate. Valentinian would then apologize to Count Theodosius for Merobaudes’ behavior and not only pardon Count Theodosius in North Africa but appoint Count Theodosius to the highest military position of the west or Magister Militum charged with being the protector of both Gratian and Valentinian II while in Moesia which was part of the eastern half of the empire, Theodosius the Younger would still remain there but without having much significance. Meanwhile in the eastern half of the empire by 376, its emperor Valens had at least succeeded in building a massive and highly effective aqueduct in the capital, Constantinople but had spent most of his reign engaged again in the age-old war with the Sassanid emperor Shapur II except not to invade the Sassanid Empire but over the disputed control of Armenia and Iberia (Georgia). When Valens was over in Antioch preparing for his campaign against the Sassanids, he received shocking news from the Danube border of the eastern empire which was that the Goths have arrived and were seeking asylum within the Roman Empire from the Huns, so Valens decided to conclude another treaty with Shapur II so that he could rush back to the Balkans to check on the situation there. 

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Byzantine illustration of Emperor Valens
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Valens’ Aqueduct, Constantinople

The threat of Goths meanwhile was nothing new to Rome as ever since the 3rd century crisis, the Goths have already been invading the Danube border of the Roman Empire and in one event in 251, the Roman emperor Decius (r. 249-251) when pushing away the Goths from the empire was killed in battle against them. Valens himself years earlier in 367 fought against the Goths who supported the usurper Procopius that Valens had defeated so Valens based on his experience in actually winning the war knew what the Goths were capable of and knew they did not pose too much of a threat, so when Valens received word of the Goths all amassed outside the Danube border requesting for asylum within the empire, Valens agreed to it thinking the Goths could be dispersed once inside the empire wherein they could enter and be integrated as Roman citizens, surrender their weapons, renounce their tribal leaders, and allow their young men to be recruited into the Roman army. However, this was not the case here as the numbers of Goths outside the border numbered up to 90,000 and included men, women, and children all trying to get away from the Huns.

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Goths from across the Danube travel into Roman lands, 376

The Goths though have already been amassed outside the Danube border town of Durostorum in Moesia long before Valens got word of it as Valens was miles away, all the way in Antioch in Syria when he heard of this. Since Valens pulled out most of the troops mostly consisting of the best soldiers from the Balkans to Syria, the Danube border was undermanned and only protected by the less trained Limitanei army or border guards while the Goths outside the border requesting asylum in the empire did not just consist of a small band of warriors and families but almost the entire Thervingi tribe, which came from right across the Danube border in today’s Romania led by their new ruler Fritigern who demanded that they be let in because their homeland was under the threat of a new and unknown enemy that had the power to destroy civilization which were the Nomadic Huns. This mysterious race of people known as the Huns lived on their horses and destroyed everything in their path as a Nomadic Empire coming from deep within Central Asia and in the early 370s, a large horde of Huns arrived in the Steppes of Ukraine and defeated the Alani tribes that lived there and soon enough clashed with the tribe of the Greuthungi Goths who were from the area of today’s Ukraine along the Black Sea defeating them, and due to the Greuthungi Goths’ defeat, their leader Ermanaric, the same one who surrendered to Valens years ago killed himself and was succeeded by another ruler named Vithimiris who tried fighting back the Huns by hiring Hunnic mercenaries but was killed in battle earlier on in 376.

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Hunnish cavalry warrior

At the same time, the Roman vassal state of the Kingdom of Bosporus in the Crimea north of the Black Sea was lost as it fell to both the Huns and the Greuthungi. But for the Greuthungi, with Vithimiris died and his son Vithericus too young to rule, he was under the regency of 2 of the toughest and most brutal Greuthungi warriors Alatheus and Saphrax who did not seem to trust each other at all times but the young ruler also had his aunt, his father’s younger sister Valdis, another fierce and vicious warrior as his regent- though entirely made up just for this story- and ironically just like the siblings Valentinian and Valens who’s names began with a “v”, the siblings Vithimiris and Valdis also shared a “v” for their first names. The leaders of the Greuthungi Alatheus and Saphrax led their tribe first south into the lands of the Thervingi ruled by Athanaric- who made peace with Valens earlier- however Athanaric over the years had also been engaged in wars against the Huns and his many defeats weakened his authority that a majority of his men deserted him in favor of 2 other warriors Fritigern and Alavivus. By the time the Greuthungi Goths settled in Thervingi lands, Fritigern and Alavivus who were also converts to Arian Christianity were already basically in charge of the tribe but since Athanaric was still alive, Fritigern did not want to risk a civil war and persecution by the Pagan Athanaric especially since it was a bad time to do that considering the expansion of the Huns, so Fritgern and his men had no choice but to seek asylum in the Roman Empire and their Greuthungi neighbors thought about the same thing too, however it was Fritigern, Alavivus, and the Thervingi that showed up first at the Danube border and Fritigern himself wrote to Valens who was in Antioch to grant him and his men entry into the empire. Now looking back to decades earlier, the Goths beyond Roman borders accepted Arian Christianity as their faith rather than Nicene Christianity because it was closer to their own Pagan beliefs wherein they could worship outdoors like they did with their old gods.

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Thervingi Goths migrate into Eastern Roman territory

As the Goths were amassed outside the Danube border, Valens among many other Romans felt like giving the Goths a chance as the Romans too heard rumors that Huns who came out of nowhere “uprooted and destroyed everything in their path like a whirlwind descending from high mountains”, so feeling some sympathy for the Goths given their current situation, Valens decided to grant them asylum sending orders to the young army commander in Moesia, the Dux Lupicinus who was a tall and thin man with black hair and his 2nd in command Maximus who was both tall and quite overweight to assist Fritigern and his Goths in crossing the Danube into the empire and providing them with food and land to settle in. When seeing the Goths, Lupicinus and Maximus were shocked to see their numbers as 90,000 crossed the Danube in small boats and even tree trunks in such a panic that a number of them even died drowning in the river due to their combined weight. The moment the Thervingi Goths were within the Eastern Roman Empire in Moesia (Bulgaria), their numbers proved to be too impossible for the Limitanei border troops to control and for Roman authorities to feed that the food supply ran out thus starving them, though Lupicinus and Maximus when having the option to disperse them across the empire chose to contain all of them in Moesia as it would pose a threat to the whole empire if they were to be dispersed. With the shortage of food, the historian Ammianus Marcellinus here mentioned that the situation was so severe that the Goths had to sell their children to Roman slave traders in return for rotten dog meat. The Dux Lupicinus meanwhile sent word to Valens who was still in Antioch that they had made a mistake in letting the Goths in as their numbers were far beyond control but just as Lupicinus sent this report to Valens, the situation grew even worse as now the Greuthungi Goths led by Alatheus, Saphrax, and Valdis were now the ones outside the Danube border this time.

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Late Roman Limitanei border guard soldier, art by Amelianvs

Now Vithericus, the young ruler of the Greuthungi though was left behind in their lands to be raised by his mother. At this moment however, Lupicinus claiming he had orders from Valens refused to grant asylum to the Greuthungi realizing how the Thervingi were too difficult to manage. As for Fritigern who was feeling impatient, he broke out of his containment zone in Moesia attempting to take over some land to settle in and grow their own food but before doing it, he was caught by Lupicinus who secretly came up with a plot to capture both Fritigern and his tribal co-leader Alavivus by luring them into having a feast at the city of Marcianople in Moesia located near the Black Sea. With the absence of Lupicinus, Maximus, and their army at the border, the Greuthungi Goths that were being held there grew impatient and stormed into the border not knowing anything about their relationship with the Roman Empire and the agreement to be settled and integrated into the empire. Instead, the Greuthungi in this story’s case before making it to the Danube met up and allied with the same Quadi tribe and their leader Genseric that Valentinian I was at war and defeated a year earlier. The Greuthungi leaders Alatheus, Saphrax, and Valdis out of impatience slaughtered the Limitanei legions guarding the border, crossed the river again by stealing the small boats the legions had, and stormed into the empire mercilessly plundering the villages they saw and slaughtering all its people. The Greuthungi Goths then raided their way through Moesia and while the Greuthungi were continuing their pillaging spree, Lupicinus and Maximus invited Fritigern, Alavivus, and their bodyguards to a feast in Marcianople but it was all a trap as when the Thervingi leaders arrived, Lupicinus hoping this would end the unrest had his soldiers massacre Fritigern’s bodyguards killing Alavivus too in the process. Fritigern however managed to escape with only a few surviving bodyguards back to his army of 7,000 which happened to be assembled in the hills outside Marcianople and when returning to his men, Fritigern told them that the Romans had betrayed them by setting up a trap in which Alavivus was killed in and the Goths as people were known to have revenge easily when they are humiliated.

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Fritigern’s Gothic cavalry charge at the Romans outside Marcianople, 376

Hearing of Alavivus’ death, the Gothic army of Fritigern all demanded they attack Lupicinus and his forces and so the Goths under Fritigern proceeded to ravage the farms outside Marcianople burning everything they saw leaving Lupicinus and Maximus to confront the 7,000 Goths with their army of only 5,000 Limitanei troops which were not as effective and well trained as the mobile field army or Comitatenses in which most of them were with Valens in the east. Lupicinus’ Limitanei army however were no match to the vengeful Gothic warriors of Fritigern who in a fit of rage all charged at the Limitanei legions outside Marcianople easily shocking them. At the end, the Goths overpowered the Eastern Roman army making most of the barely experienced Limitanei legions flee back to the city and in the battle, Maximus was captured while Fritgern was able to interrogate Lupicinus asking him if Valens was secretly planning to betray them, instead Lupicinus with such fear in his heart told Fritigern that he was only following orders and demanded to be let go promising to give in to the Goths’ demands this time.

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Late Roman legionnaire’s weapons and equipment

Fritigern then told Lupicinus his own intention of actually making a kingdom of Goths within the Roman Empire and not fully believing Lupicinus’ word, Fritigern decided to spare him though Fritigern still pinned Lupicinus down to the ground and broke Lupicinus’ arm himself by pulling it thus snapping his lower arm out of his elbow joint, and with such trauma and humiliation Lupicinus galloped back to Marcianople in tears and pain while Fritgern ordered his men to pick up the more superior weapons of the dead Roman legionnaires including spears, longswords, shields, bows, javelins, and darts which would be helpful in fighting the Romans later on. Fritigern took many prisoners among the Roman legions as well enslaving many of them in order to show his men the way to the rich villages and towns and in the next couple of weeks, the Thervingi Goths in an act of vengeance against the Romans for mistreating them burned everything in their path, stole all the wealth, and massacred even the newborn babies. 

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Goths settling in the Roman Empire mistreated by Roman authorities
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Greuthungi Goths cross the Danube and slaughter Roman legionnaires

In late 376, Valens still in Antioch got word from Moesia hearing the Goths under Fritigern now joined forces with their Greuthungi neighbors and were pillaging their way through Moesia heading towards Thrace and also that Lupicinus had been defeated getting his arm broken. Valens now had no choice but to declare war on the Goths in order to contain them but he was not yet over in settling the conflict with the Sassanids so he sent his generals Trajan– named after the great 2nd century Roman emperor- and Profuturus with their legions west to the Balkans and contain the Goths. Over in Trier where Valentinian I was still alive in this story’s case, his son and co-emperor Gratian was first to get word from his uncle Valens that Thrace needs reinforcements from the west. Valentinian at this point was upset at his brother Valens for actually giving in to the Goths’ demands thus leading to such a large-scale catastrophe wherein Valentinian from the beginning being known to hate the barbarian enemies of Rome would have already not trusted the Goths and would immediately deny them entry when they camped outside the border.

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Western Roman emperor Valentinian I the Great (r. 364-375) with his Palatini legions

Now being so displeased with Valens’ decision, Valentinian chose not to head east leading the army, instead he sent a small number of poorly armed and poorly trained auxiliary troops and Limitanei legions from the Alps and Pannonia over to Thrace as a message for Valens to realize his mistake. Gratian however could somewhat see his uncle was going to be in trouble so he sent the half-Frankish general Richomeres to go east with a large army of the elite Palatini and Comitatenses legions. Now in early 377, before the eastern and western legions would meet each other in Moesia, Fritigern and his Thervingi tribesmen met up with the Greuthungi tribe setting up camp in the part of Thrace where the Danube meets the Black Sea and here Fritigern held a meeting with his now co-leaders Alatheus, Saphrax, and Valdis so to test the strength of his new allies, Fritigern asked Saphrax, one of the toughest warriors of the Greuthungi to challenge their new ally, the Quadi’s leader Genseric to a duel and in this sword duel, Saphrax was able to disarm and pin Genseric to the ground and with Genseric losing, Fritigern demanded Genseric leave their alliance for losing in a single duel as Fritigern did not tolerate weakness especially since he knew they would soon be at war with Romans who were much stronger and disciplined when it came to war. After Genseric angrily left the alliance’s camp feeling betrayed, Fritigern then asked Alatheus to prove his strength in killing Romans by asking him to kill their prisoner, Lupicinus’ co-commander Maximus in which Alatheus after removing his armor and tunic beneath it to the point of only wearing his pants and boots eagerly clubbed Maximus to death so brutally in front of the Goths in which even Fitigern was shocked seeing such brutality. With the overweight Maximus beaten so brutally, Alatheus spat on his face and minutes later Maximus died from his wounds and his body was dumped into the Black Sea. Fritigern now at least knew he could count on his new Greuthungi Goth allies but he knew that in order to win against the Romans, he needed a Roman to take as a hostage willing to betray Rome and expose the weak points of the Romans to them. The western forces led by Richomeres meanwhile had arrived in Moesia and got into a few skirmishes with the Goths while the eastern legions led by Trajan and Profuturus also arrived in Thrace with their Armenian allies as they headed north to Moesia and near the mouth of Danube, both eastern and western forces were able to meet up.

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4th century Roman Comitatus legionnaire (left) and auxiliary (right)

When both eastern and western Roman forces met up near the same city of Marcianople where the conflict began almost a year earlier, they were from there able to track the Goths to nearby the town of Ad Salices meaning “by the willows” where the Danube met the Black Sea where the combined Goths under Fritigern, Alatheus, and Saphrax were encamped and there they readied themselves creating a wagon fort known as a laager surrounding themselves with their own wagons. The combined forces of the Greuthungi and Thervingi Goths started feeling uncomfortable being held inside their wagon fort that both Alatheus and Valdis demanded that Fritigern allow them to leave and simply attack the Romans who they heard were approaching but Fritigern told them that they had to fight smart, as one careless charge would make them lose. The Goths then spent the whole night behind their wagons which formed a circle and when the sun rose, they could see the Roman legions headed their way coming from the hills and seeing the Romans coming, Fritigern ordered his other fellow Thervingi warriors, Sueridus and Colias who were his 2 other toughest men to charge at the Roman legions while Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, and Valdis stayed behind the wagons.

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Medieval illustration of a Gothic “laager” or wagon fort

The battle started without any results except for both the Romans and Goths losing the same number of men over the next hours due to the javelins they threw at each other until the point when both forces’ shields clashed with each other. When nightfall came, both eastern and western Roman forces abandoned the battle seeing that they have lost so much men and the Goths did the same too, though both Sueridus and Colias survived and retreated back to the wagon fort. As for the Western Roman forces, the general Richomeres noticed that his men were already too weakened from the battle thus he abandoned the mission and retreated back west with what was left of his army while the eastern generals Profuturus and Trajan seeing that they could not do anything about the battle anymore retreated south. The Goths however stayed for one more week in their wagon fort as they were expecting the Romans to attack again but when learning of no new attack, Fritigern ordered the fort to be dismantled and that they disperse again across Moesia, thus the Romans though coming so close to containing the Goths failed to contain them again. As for Trajan and Profuturus, when heading south, they met up with Lupicinus who had now fully recovered and together had stationed soldiers and ordered the construction of blockades in the mountain passes of Thrace to prevent the Goths from reaching Constantinople. Fritigern then led his men west hoping to arrive in either Greece or Constantinople that way but were blocked by the new fortifications in the mountain passes where they got into several unsuccessful skirmishes with the Romans, though as they travelled west, here a fictional scenario happened wherein a small army led by the same Dux of Moesia Theodosius the Younger, son of Count Theodosius clashed with the Goths, and Theodosius here wanted to score points for Rome as he did before in 374 when the Quadi and Sarmatians invaded Moesia.

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Fritigern, ruler of the Thervingi Goths on his horse

Theodosius’ forces however lost in battle to Fritigern and Theodosius himself was captured and chained while his army scattered. He was later brought to the Goths’ new camp while Fritigern still thinking of ways on how to defeat the Romans sent word to the Alans beyond the Danube to help them, also sending funds to pay for an army of Hunnish mercenaries. At the camp, Fritigern met with the 30-year-old Theodosius the Younger where Fritigern was convincing him to join the Goths, though Theodosius was at first not open to the idea since he was loyal to Rome and wants to prove to his emperors Valentinian and Valens that he was worthy of being promoted to a higher rank in the army but Fritigern wanting a Roman on their side convinced Theodosius with lies that Valentinian could get rid of him one day if Theodosius would do something wrong as Fritigern knew this about Valentinian’s personality so Theodosius falling for this considered the option of joining Fritigern who also promised to make Theodosius the Goth’s puppet Roman emperor with all the imperial privileges if the Goths were to win.

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Roman legionnaires at the Battle of Ad Salices against the Goths, 377

Meanwhile, in late 377 Valens finally marched out of Antioch after taking care of a few local disputes including a small rebellion there gathering almost all the forces in the east stationed at the border of Armenia to join him in their march west to face the Goths while in Gaul, Richomeres returned reporting to Valentinian of their defeat to the Goths at Ad Salices. Valentinian as usual was angered hearing of this defeat but hearing from Richomeres that the Goths possessed a large number of men and that their strength was underestimated, Valentinian agreed that it was time to help his brother in the east despite Valentinian growing more and more displeased with Valens’ incompetence and also to the fact that Valens was an Arian Christian making him a heretic but since a bigger threat was coming and this threat came from Germanic barbarians that Valentinian was extremely angered at, he decided it was finally time after 13 years since coming into power to help his brother. With Valentinian still in Trier, his general Count Theodosius unaware that his son joined the Goths told Valentinian that if he marches east then the Rhine would be unprotected making the Alemanni invade Gaul again so Valentinian entrusted Count Theodosius with 3 western legions to stay in the Rhine border and together with Gratian defend it against a possible Alemanni threat all while Valentinian’s younger son was in Milan at this time under the care of his mother Justina.

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Sample Germanic Alemanni warrior and weapons

Now in real history, with Valentinian I dead by the time the Goths were invading Thrace, Gratian who was now the western senior emperor was already sending a reinforcement army east to help Valens but the Alemanni true enough did invade the Rhine which made Gratian have to focus on defending it first thus delaying them from meeting up with Valens, however in this case with Valentinian I still alive, he would be able to manage the army better by splitting it in half with one division sent to guard the Rhine and the other one which included Palatini legions to join him in their march east. Now as both western and eastern Roman legions were regrouping again, the Goths now with their Hunnish and Alan allies under Fritigern were able to break through the Roman blockades in the Haemus and Rhodope Mountains and were able to get deep into Thrace already so close to Constantinople but stopping them was the city of Deultum (in today’s Bulgaria) along the Black Sea which was heavily guarded by an Eastern Roman army. Fritigern knowing that there was no way to take over the city since they had no siege weapons assembled his camp in a swamp some kilometers away from the city and by this point Theodosius the Younger was already with the Goths but still unsure whether he would loyally serve Fritigern or not as the Goths Alatheus and Saphrax openly distrusted him for being a Roman.

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Concept art of a female Gothic warrior (Valdis in this story’s case)

As Theodosius thought of whether to betray Rome or not, the tough and blonde female Greuthungi Valdis who was brave enough to do anything including fighting only wearing a band of cloth across her chest and a fur cloak over her shoulders leaving most of her body except for her legs and breasts exposed entered his tent and again convinced Theodosius that the Goths will surely beat the Romans and with Roman authority gone, Theodosius would have no longer any more purpose at such a young age and with Fritigern, he would have a future. Valdis then told Theodosius that Fritigern needs him in their next mission which was to find a way to steal the siege weapons of Deultum and only a Roman which is Theodosius could be able to help them sneak into the city and here Theodosius agreed to help.

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A Late Roman Onager (catapult)

As for Valens now in 378, he had already arrived in Constantinople where he was met by massive rioting due to him being an Arian and not being around when the Goths invaded but since Valens had no time to deal with the riots especially since the Goths were coming so close, he soon enough left Constantinople to meet up with his generals in a town nearby where Trajan, Profuturus, and Lupicinus met up with him as well as another general named Sebastianus who had arrived from Illyria and here when Valens heard of Trajan letting his men lose to the Goths at Ad Salices, he had Trajan demoted and sent to quell the unrest in Constantinople replacing him with Sebastianus who was made Magister Militum.

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Eastern Roman Magister Militum

Lupicinus here told Valens exactly what the Goths were up to which was that they did plan to actually make a kingdom of their own in Roman territory which now justified for Valens a reason to fight them in battle so Valens first sent Sebastianus to head north and wipe out the Gothic raiding bands that were reported to have been raiding through Thrace. Now in real history, Lupicinus after his defeat to Fritigern back in 376 disappeared from history but in this case to expand more on his character, he was asked by Valens to join him against the Goths as Lupicinus facing the Goths’ full power earlier on knew what to expect, meanwhile the same Quadi leader Genseric and his men also met up with Valens this exact moment now fully swearing loyalty to Rome after being betrayed by Fritigern for showing weakness, and Valens desperate for a larger army accepted Genseric and his Quadi warriors as allied troops better known as Foederati. To the north, the general Sebastianus with a small force was able to defeat all the raiding Gothic hordes near the city of Adrianople and due to their defeats, the surviving Goths headed back to Fritigern to tell him to proceed to Adrianople as Valens had come to reinforce it. Over in the coastal city of Deultum along the Black Sea, here is another fictional scenario for this story’s case wherein a team of only 6 consisting of the Greuthungi leaders Alatheus, Saphrax, Valdis with the Thervingi leaders Sueridus and Colias and their hostage Theodosius the Younger broke into the city at midnight as Theodosius who had been to Deultum before knew of a way in wherein he led them through bypassing the city’s garrison through an entrance by the beach and once they were in, Theodosius showed them the storage room of the siege engines where they had Sueridus and Colias guard the door while Alatheus, Saphrax, Valdis, and Theodosius went inside to steal the siege weapons including ballistae and onagers, however when coming in they realized they did not bring any tools to dismantle the weapons so Alatheus who was in charge of this mission angrily slapped Saphrax for making them fail the mission so the 5 Goths escaped the city using the same passage they entered leaving Theodosius alone inside.

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Late Roman Ballista

However, when the sun rose, Theodosius came out of the city’s main gate with the entire city’s garrison though not betraying the Goths, instead he bribed the Roman garrison there to join the Goths and surrender the city and even more, he was able to acquire the siege weapons with the help of the local garrison. The 5 Goths except for Alatheus were all pleased with Theodosius’ efforts as Alatheus began to feel that the Roman Theodosius who they had just met was getting more attention as Alatheus always felt he was everyone’s favorite warrior. Back in the camp, Fritigern was pleased hearing that Theodosius helped them take siege weapons they so needed so he called for just Alatheus, Saphrax, Valdis, and Theodosius to personally meet with him at his personal tent wherein he told them that alliances are indeed important and that they were now to head to Adrianople as Fritigern heard that Valens was going to reinforce it. Fritigern however told them that they must head over to Adrianople as he heard Valens was sending an army there and that Valentinian from the west was soon to arrive. Again, in real history, the forces of Gratian would take months to arrive and help Valens in the east especially since the Alemanni invaded Gaul making Gratian have to focus his attention there but in this case Gratian with Count Theodosius would be there in Gaul to fully focus on the Alemanni which had just invaded while Valentinian I was already heading east with Richomeres. Valens meanwhile had been waiting for Valentinian to arrive for 2 months now and this whole time, the thought of Sebastianus scoring victories would make Valens feel like a loser so feeling confident to attack the Goths to score points and gain the respect of the people in Constantinople even before Valentinian could arrive, Valens ordered all his men including his commanders Profuturus, Lupicinus, and Genseric to depart their base near Constantinople for Adrianople on the morning of August 7, 378, although both Sebastianus and Richomeres met up with Valens here and Richomeres gave word to Valens that Valentinian was very near so Valens did not have to charge into battle yet.

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Training process of the late Roman army, art by Amelianvs
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Fritigern and his Goths ride through Thrace in 378, art by Giuseppe Rava

The Climax- The Battle of Adrianople (378)

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Before Valens and his army arrived outside Adrianople, Fritigern and all his allies arrived ahead setting themselves up in one of hills near the city of Adrianople in Thrace where they did the same as before building a circular fort using their wagons and placing their tents inside it and again with their women and children brought with them too. Valens meanwhile on the night of August 8, before reaching the area of Adrianople received an envoy from Fritigern which was an Arian priest who addressed that the Goths only wanted some land in the Roman Empire, and Valens hearing the truth from Lupicinus before in this story’s case knew certainly that Fritigern was lying but Valens did not think of attacking yet because he still knew Valentinian would arrive soon enough. Valens and his generals then held a war council to decide whether to attack immediately or wait for Valentinian but Sebastianus told Valens to just attack believing Valentinian might have had other places to go in his long march and if they attack, Valens who had never gotten much credit in his life will finally get it while Richomeres on the other hand told Valens to simply wait since it was about time the Romans showed unity against a common enemy. Valens and his men then did not sleep the entire night as they were waiting for either a surprise attack from the Goths or for Valentinian and reinforcements to arrive and during this hot summer night night Valens contemplated his whole reign and was deciding if he should listen to Sebastianus and attack since it could gain Valens some credit as for his whole reign he felt as if he lived in the shadow of his older brother and had never achieved much and now was his chance.

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Layout of a late Roman Castra (army camp)

Just as everyone remained awake all night, a young Roman-Egyptian Comitatus soldier in the eastern army named Flavius Anthemius under the command of Profuturus saw an army of legionnaires marching to their camp and Anthemius immediately sent word to Valens at his tent that the full western army finally arrived with Valentinian dressed in full golden imperial armor and a purple cape over it at the lead. Once the western legions arrived in Valens’ camp, Valentinian proceeded to Valens’ tent and the brothers would see each other again in person after 14 full years as the last time both had seen each other was in Constantinople back in 364 when both were made co-emperors and now, they were finally reunited for the moment they were both needed most to fight together as Eastern and Western Romans united. Valens here wearing only his sleepwear which was a loose white tunic was filled with joy seeing his older brother again but Valentinian in full armor slapped Valens’ face when seeing him as a way to scold Valens for his incompetence especially in committing a terrible mistake in trusting the Goths and letting them into the empire thus leading to a devastating war. Valens told Valentinian that he admitted he was wrong but Valentinian was still not happy with Valens’ answer though Richomeres told both co-emperors to stop arguing with each other like children as they cannot do something this stupid in such a critical time when the Goths are already coming so close to them. In the middle of Valentinian and Valens’ argument, the same Quadi leader Genseric saw Valentinian again despite from afar and thought of deserting remembering the trauma in him caused by seeing Valentinian’s rage 3 years earlier, but Lupicinus stood up and told everyone that this kind of disunity among the Romans is what the Goths want to exploit and that the threat of the Goths was no joke and was deadlier than all the enemies both Valentinian and Valens had faced in their lifetime, therefore they must unite for something deadlier is coming for both east and west. Valentinian then apologized to Genseric for his anger burst 3 years ago and told Valens that he was now settled and had agreed that he and Valens will lead the legions themselves. As the sun rose, the eastern and western legions departed the camp with the columns of eastern legions on the right with Valens in front of them next to his generals Lupicinus, Sebastianus, and Profuturus with their Palatini, Comitatenses, Limitanei legions and cavalry including Roman Cataphracts behind while at the center were the Quadi Foederati troops led by Genseric and on the left were the columns of the western legions led by Valentinian I in front with Richomeres and behind them too were the west’s Palatini, Comitatenses, and Limitanei legions and cavalry as well.

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Late Roman Comitatus soldier in full armor

The combined eastern and western legions despite getting no sleep the whole night before marched from their camp several kilometers away from Adrianople for 8 long hours in the heat of summer through rough terrain and at 2pm they caught sight of Fritigern’s wagon fort above a hill and when seeing the camp, the eastern and western cavalry units rode forward to flank both sides of their emperors and legions. Fritigern however wanted all his forces to attack at once so to buy time he planned a fake peace negotiation again with the emperors, again sending the same priest to negotiate with Valens in which Valens was about to agree to it but Valentinian soon enough rode to Valens demanding him to refuse it as he knew it would be a trap so Valens took the letter, ripped it, and threw it back at the priest who then returned to Fritigern’s camp, but soon enough he returned the next hour telling them that Fritigern wants to meet with them in person and Richomeres feeling like giving up agreed to surrender himself as a hostage to the Goths but Valentinian told him to shut up and shouted right at the priest telling him that they have had enough and did not march all the way there to settle for peace. The Roman legions meanwhile were all impatient and tired as they marched for 8 hours under the hot sun with such heavy armor making them extremely sweaty and dehydrated but both Valentinian and Valens told them to put that all aside and focus although out of nowhere- just like in the real story of this battle- a division in the Eastern Roman army consisting of Iberian archers from Georgia grew impatient and without orders from both co-emperors they charged up the hill to Fritigern’s camp wherein they were ambushed by a unit of Fritigern’s Thervingi Goths. Shortly after this division carelessly charged, a large army of the Greuthungi Goth cavalry with their Hunnish and Alan allies led by both Alatheus and Saphrax appeared and were charging downhill at the Romans, first breaking and routing the Iberian archers. As the division of Alatheus and Saphrax with their Huns and Alans charged from the north, the division of Greuthungi Goth cavalry together with the Thervingi warriors Sueridus and Colias and Valdis leading them charged from the east, thus beginning the battle.

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Emperor Valens riding to battle in 378, art by Giuseppe Rava
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378, Battle of Adrianople war map

As the battle fully broke out, the first of the Goths to charge at the Romans included the cavalry of Alatheus and Saphrax with their Hunnish and Alan cavalry and at this moment, the Romans saw for once how deadly and swift the Huns were as they charged with great speed at their formations constantly firing arrows as they rode but what was more terrifying to the Romans was that the Huns unleashed their lassos in which they managed to take down several of the weaker Roman Limitanei legions using them. To combat the Goth, Alan, and Hun cavalry, the Western Roman cavalry including the heavily armored Cataphracts led by the half-Frankish officer Flavius Bauto charged at them in wedge formations to break through the spinning circular formation of the Huns, while in the lower ground the Western Roman Comitatenses infantry without orders from a commander but from 2 young soldiers in their ranks, the half-Frankish Arbogast and half-Vandal Flavius Stilicho told all the infantry to form a shield wall or a version of the old Testudo formation but to remain still on the ground without moving, and at least they were able to resist the incoming waves of the Greuthungi Gothic infantry with it.

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Hun attacks a late Roman legionnaire

In the east side of the battle, Richomeres charged to confront Valdis and the other half of the Goths’ cavalry where Richomeres charged straight at it killing many Goths in the process. However as Richomeres charged at the center of Valdis’ division, Sueridus and Colias were able to break through the sides charging at the Eastern Roman infantry but again, the eastern legions including the young Anthemius and their commanders Sebastianus and Profuturus formed the same shield wall resisting the Goths’ charge and killing many although soon enough it looked like both eastern and western Romans forces were going to be encircled by the Goths and their allies as the division of Alatheus and Saphrax already charged on one side and the division of Valdis from the other side and ahead of them, Fritigern from his camp saw that the Romans were already trapped on both sides so he sent his Thervingi infantry using stolen Roman spears and shields to charge at the Roman infantry as if in phalanx formation. The first to charge at the Goths’ advancing phalanx though was not a Roman infantry division but the Foederati Quadi troops led by Genseric who were able to fight off and break the Goth’s formation but were soon outnumbered and Genseric himself was killed in the attack, thus routing the Quadi. On the north side of the battle, Alatheus killed many Romans in his path and was headed to Lupicinus, however Lupicinus who here was in command of the eastern Palatini legions used them to block off Alatheus’ attack while Saphrax and his cavalry charged at and broke the shield wall of the Comitatenses unit of Stilicho and Abrogast forcing both of them to flee to the Western Palatini legions. Both Valentinian and Valens meanwhile retreated to the back of the battle seeing that they were true enough almost surrounded and the battle was coming to no conclusions so far so Valentinian ordered that the Western Palatini cavalry return to him and the Eastern Palatini cavalry to Valens and form into columns to break through the Goths so that they could reach Fritigern’s camp as attacking it could distract the Goths.

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Late Roman Cataphract cavalry soldier

Meanwhile, the Goths still had more surprises and this time, Fritigern ordered their stolen Roman siege engines to be rolled out and from the hill, 8 stolen ballistae fired bolts scattering the Roman infantry. Seeing the ballistae and onagers firing at them from above, Sebastianus who was fighting off the Alan cavalry this time ordered the Eastern Roman archers to aim for the siege engines and to his shock, Sebastianus saw that the ones manning the siege engines were the Roman legionnaires that had betrayed Rome. Valdis on the other side of the battlefield was thrown off her horse by a javelin hitting her horse thrown by one of Richomeres’ men while Richomeres was pushed off his horse by a Goth he killed, thus leading to a one-on-one duel between Richomeres who only had his longsword or Spatha and Valdis wielding both a Gothic axe and a stolen a Roman Spatha making it her own weapon. The Huns on the other hand encircled several units of the Western and Eastern Roman infantry and in the attack against the Hunnish cavalry, the eastern general Profuturus was killed although the Huns’ battle formation was broken by Bauto and his cavalry which headed straight for the Goths at the same time as Valentinian and Valens both dressed in full imperial armor with golden jewelled helmets and purple capes with their Palatini cavalry charged in full speed to Fritigern’s camp and in the process scattering the Gothic forces and once above the hill, the Palatini cavalry slaughtered the Roman traitors and took over the siege engines now turning the tide of battle as they fired missiles at the Goths. Valens now was to lead the attack on the remaining Goths in their wagon fort while Valentinian was headed to Fritigern’s tent to confront him.

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Roman Comitatenses legions defend themselves against the Goths

In the battlefield, Saphrax was able to wipe out 3 Roman Comitatenses and 4 Limitanei units with the help of the Huns while Sebastianus himself confronted Saphrax in a duel but due to Saphrax’s intense speed in combat, Sebastianus was slashed in his legs and when falling on the ground was killed as Saphrax decapitated him with his axe. Alatheus meanwhile could see at the same time that the Goths were close to losing except for the Gothic infantry with Colias and Sueridus leading them being able to completely surround the Palatini legions led by Lupicinus, and Alatheus was now feeling conflicted whether to defect to the Romans fearing for his life or to continue fighting for his people. Alatheus now came to realize that there was no need to fight and destroy Rome as at this point he knew the Romans would give them the promise of a civilized life in exchange for the Goths submitting to them and now seeing all the glory he could have when serving Rome and also feeling that he would soon fall out of favor with the Goths as Theodosius was now becoming their new favorite, Alatheus had a change of heart and he himself with the Alan cavalry under him charged directly at Sueridus and Colias who were killed by spears thrown by Alatheus’ Alan cavalry, afterwards Alatheus freed the surrounded Palatini legions and Lupicinus who Alatheus then went up to telling him that now they should fight together.

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Alan cavalry warrior

Lupicinus was first unsure of how to react, but when the Huns came his way, Alatheus and his Alan cavalry immediately assisted him in counter attacking the Huns and when the Huns ran out of arrows to fire, they deserted the battlefield. The western legions meanwhile were close to being completely crushed by the remaining Goth infantry and cavalry led by Saphrax with Stilicho and Arbogast close to death but soon enough Stilicho who was knocked down on the ground and being constantly kicked in the chest by Saphrax gained the upper hand, pulled down Saphrax’s legs and stabbed him right in the chest with his sword while Arbogast did the same thus killing Saphrax while Bauto’s cavalry charged and routed Saphrax’s Goths. As night fell, both Greuthungi and Thervingi Goths seeing their leaders Saphrax, Sueridus, and Colias dead and Alatheus defecting, they all began deserting the battlefield. Back to Richomeres, he was in such fear fighting Valdis not only because of her skills but because of her fearsome screaming in which the fact that she was fighting almost naked except for the cloth band around her chest, fur cloak, and pants added up to the fear. Richomeres who was in full armor and a helmet however gained the upper hand and was able to disarm and injure Valdis as well as slash off her fur cloak, but before Richomeres could kill her, Alatheus, Lupicinus, Stilicho, Arbogast, Bauto, and Anthemius showed up urging Richomeres to leave her alone since with the Goths defeated, Valdis would be useless and she could even be a possible candidate for Roman citizenship while her status in Gothic society could make her a perfect wife for a Roman Patrician. Valdis who now being beaten in a duel with Richomeres and now only wearing the cloth band around her large breasts and pants as her cloak had been cut off refused the offer given to her by Lupicinus and instead went up to Alatheus telling him he is a traitor and will pay in blood but Lupicinus said that Alatheus is now a loyal citizen of Rome who can have the power to punish her, though without saying a thing, Valdis left never to return again.  

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The Hunnish lasso
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Goths charge at the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople, 378
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Late Roman legions form a shield wall
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Roman legionnaires weakened by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople, art by Giuseppe Rava
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Last stand of the Eastern and Western Romans before their eventual (fictional) victory at the Battle of Adrianople, 378

As the battle was nearing its end below the hill with the sun setting, Valentinian made it into Fritigern’s camp killing Fritigern’s bodyguards himself with his sword while Valens and his cavalry looted and burned the tents of the Goths as well as the wagons surrounding the encampment killing the Gothic women and children that were kept in there as well since nothing could be done about them. Inside Fritigern’s tent, Valentinian to his horror saw Theodosius the Younger now fully a Goth in heart in full Gothic attire with a tunic, pants, and a fur cloak practicing with his sword as Fritigern observed him though Fritigern went up to Valentinian himself saying that the young Theodosius already saw that the Roman Empire would fall. Theodosius then spoke directly to Valentinian telling him to listen to Fritigern as Theodosius here could now truly see he was right for siding with the Fritigern’s Gothic coalition since Theodosius came to realize that the Roman Empire was broken and so divided especially because of the religious division between the Arian and Nicene Christians and only with the rule of the Goths would Rome rise up again united and be rebuilt under new leadership. Valentinian shocked seeing what Theodosius had become told him that Fritigern was poisoning his mind and to think about his own actions especially since Theodosius betraying Rome would make his father, the most loyal Roman general Count Theodosius very ashamed of him but the young Theodosius still did not listen saying his father too was weak and all he has done for Rome with his father was useless. Seeing Theodosius’ betrayal fuelled Valentinian’s rage once more but instead of choosing to attack Theodosius who he still saw as a fellow Roman, Valentinian charged straight at Fritigern with his sword though Fritigern blocked his attack with his sword and both were engaged in a vicious sword duel inside Fritigern’s tent which looked as luxurious as a Roman emperor’s tent could be.

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Sample design of Fritigern’s tent

In their duel, Valentinian managed to kick Fritigern who was much heavier with his armor to the ground and disarm him but Fritigern too kicked Valentinian’s arm disarming him too as Theodosius watched the rulers duel. With both disarmed, Fritigern and Valentinian fought with their fists until Valentinian was able to pin Fritigern to the ground wherein with such anger he punched Fritigern’s face countless times till it bled out until Theodosius dragged Valentinian out of it to protect Fritigern. Valentinian who however only met the young Theodosius once in 367 in Trier before the British campaign told him that Fritigern cannot be trusted and will kill Theodosius the moment he will get his way through him but Theodosius told Valentinian that the Roman imperial government itself cannot be trusted as all this time when Theodosius scored victories for Rome, he was not for once given credit and with Fritigern he will gain more credit than ever and with so much rage Theodosius proceeded to attack Valentinian with his sword but Valentinian not wanting to fight back still seeing some hope in Theodosius stood still and blocked all of Theodosius’ attacks with his sword that he had just picked up from the ground. Valentinian continued telling Theodosius to come back to the side of the Romans and see for himself what his father will think of his actions but Theodosius continued his attacks until managing to slash Valentinian’s face and out of defense, Valentinian pushed Theodosius to a brazier knocking him out, though this also pushed the heavy brazier to the ground making the flames spread and start burning the tent’s walls. As the tent started burning, Valentinian checked on the knocked-out Theodosius if he was still alive but Fritigern was able to get back on his feet and push Valentinian to the ground wherein Fritigern kicked Valentinian several times. As Valentinian was weakened, Fritigern proceeded to choke him and with Valentinian close to death, the Eastern and Western Palatini legions tore down the burning tent’s walls surrounding the them while Valens after wiping out most of the camp’s people rushed to Fritigern and kicked him saving Valentinian. Valens then angrily told Fritigern he deserves death for betraying his word and pillaging the countryside of Thrace and Moesia but Fritigern laughed seeing Valens himself willing to fight him off as Fritigern did not believe it knowing Valens unlike his older brother was a weakling and based on his indecisiveness in the war that started 2 years ago would surely have no guts to fight back but Valens here saw for himself his great mistake in trusting the Goths so he attacked Fritigern too with his sword.

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4th century Palatini Imperial Guardsman, art by Giuseppe Rava

Valentinian got up and both he and his younger brother Valens dueled Fritigern with their swords until both managed to disarm Fritigern again. As the cloth walls of the tent burned away and its fires were put down by the Palatini legions using the water they took from the Goths’ supply, both Valentinian and Valens finally fighting together as one proceeded to savagely beat Fritigern’s face to the point that his beard was soaked in his own blood. Fritigern then grew exhausted from all the fighting and fell to his knees but as he fell, a reinforcement of his bodyguard units from the battlefield rushed up to the camp surrounding Valentinian, Valens, and their Palatini legions. Fritigern told the brothers to surrender but Valentinian clearly refused and deep inside his head he could see not just all the battles he fought his entire life against Germanic barbarians but instead he was able to glimpse all the way back to the 1st century AD seeing all the wars Rome fought against any Germanic barbarian tribes whether Goths, Franks, Cherusci, Quadi, Vandals, or Alemanni and how much destruction they have brought to the empire which made Valentinian once again explode in anger. With such anger, Valentinian’s strength grew and just by slashing his sword, he killed a large number of Fritigern’s bodyguards while the surviving ones horrified seeing Valentinian’s anger fled in fear but before Valentinian could kill Fritigern himself, he fell to the ground as a blood vessel in his brain popped.

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Wrath of Valentinian I, by Dovahhatty

Fritigern too was shocked seeing the full wrath of Valentinian while Theodosius woke up after being knocked out and rushed to Fritigern while Valens went to check on his brother and Valentinian who fell to the ground told Valens that he has done his part and Rome is saved and that now it is up to both Valens and Gratian to ensure the empire will thrive again and due to suffering a burst blood vessel in his brain, Valentinian stopped breathing and died at age 57 but at least this time being able to spare the empire from a massive Gothic invasion. Fritigern then told Valens that he gave up due to seeing Valentinian’s anger which showed him this kind of frightening situation could happen if you messed with Rome. Valens then offered Theodosius again the chance to return to the side of the Romans as he could continue growing his career and be just as great of a general like his father Count Theodosius but the young Theodosius told Valens to get lost as he already has a future with Fritigern and the Goths so Fritigern then told Theodosius they are going back to the land of the Goths across the Danube saying that the war isn’t over yet. As both Fritigern and Theodosius the Younger left the scene, Valens had the Palatini troops picked up and placed Valentinian’s body in a cart headed for Constantinople where he will be buried, then Valens returned to the bottom of the hill to check on his men.

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Romans (fictionally) defeat the Goths at Adrianople

It was now late at night when Valens himself inspected the aftermath of the battlefield seeing that despite their victory against the Goths, it was a pyrrhic victory as 2/3 of the Roman army was lost but at least the Goths losing their leadership had fled and if not for Alatheus and the Alans defecting to the Romans, the Romans would have surely lost like in real history. In this case, the Romans were able to at least win despite losing more than half of their army and suffering from dehydration due to the heat because they did not lose to fear unlike in reality and here as well, Valentinian who was alive to be in this battle inspired such courage in his men to not give up. Richomeres and the young Stilicho who survived the battle went up to Valens asking what happened to Valentinian though Valens said that his older brother sadly passed but his sacrifice will not be forgotten for his anger was able to spare Rome from the devastating consequences of the Gothic War. Valens then told his men to all rest and set up camp right at the battlefield as in the next day, both eastern and western troops would return to Constantinople with their loot and Gothic prisoners wherein in a few weeks, they would celebrate a triumph when Gratian who is now the west’s new senior Augustus would arrive.

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Valens (fictionally) survives the Battle of Adrianople with his legions behind

3 weeks later, unlike in real history where Valens died in battle by either being shot by an arrow or being burned inside a farmhouse and the Goths continuing their pillaging through Thrace wherein they failed to besiege both Adrianople and Constantinople, a large triumph was celebrated in Constantinople’s main street or Mese for the surviving heroes of the battle of Adrianople following the burial of Valentinian I at the Church of the Holy Apostles, the newly built burial site for the emperors since Constantine I. In this triumph, Valens was now no longer unpopular as he was before but now celebrated as the hero of Adrianople while behind him both surviving eastern and western legions followed with their Gothic prisoners of war.

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Empress Albia Dominica, wife of Valens

The triumphal procession ended at Constantinople’s Hippodrome where Valens stood in a platform together with his wife Empress Albia Dominica and his now western co-Augustus, his now 19-year-old nephew Gratian who just arrived after just successfully defeating the Alemanni invasion of the Rhine with Count Theodosius coming east alone to congratulate the heroic soldiers and commanders particularly Richomeres, Lupicinus, Bauto, Stilicho, Arbogast, Anthemius, and their new Gothic ally Alatheus who were all called to come up to the platform together with the general Trajan who had remained in Constantinople all this time. Gratian who was also victorious in his own battles at the west then made his speech saying that with his father gone, he will do all his best in being a strong emperor like his father now that he was already an adult while Valens in his speech said that the struggles in the Gothic War taught them that it was their disunity that almost made them lose and that now east and west despite being ruled by different emperors must always cooperate with each other at all times, then Valens announced that when he dies as he had no sons ever since his only son died back in 370 at only age 4, the eastern half of the empire will be inherited by Gratian’s younger half-brother Valentinian II. Once the speeches were over, Gratian was fully acclaimed as the west’s new senior Augustus so the western legions that were in the Hippodrome pulled out a large circular shield where Gratian stood on as soldiers including Stilicho and Arbogast lifted him acclaiming him as their new emperor while cheers were once again heard from everywhere. 

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Church of the Holy Apostles, burial site of the Byzantine emperors
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Hippodrome and the Imperial District of Constantinople

 

Aftermath and Conclusion- Roman Victory and the Aftermath of the Gothic War

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In real history, the Romans could have actually beaten the Gothic army of Fritigern and his allies if Valens did not make the stupid decision of attacking the Goths without waiting for western reinforcements which means they could have worked together to overcome the Goths but instead Valens wanting to gain the credit he so wanted thought he could defeat the Goths himself but in the end, it meant the end for Valens. The Battle of Adrianople in reality resulted in the deaths of not only Valens but 35 of his senior officers and 2/3 of the Roman army dead and what really caused their defeat was not so much the lack of troops and strength or the heat but losing to fear as when they arrived at the battlefield, they were overwhelmed by the Goths that encircled them forcing many of the Roman soldiers to flee in fear instead of standing up against the Goths.

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Historical death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople

Now in this story, the result of the battle was the same with 2/3 of the Roman army- both eastern and western combined- lost but what would be different here in this case compared to the historical version is that since Valentinian I was still alive and present at the battle, being an able and charismatic general to his troops, he was able to inspire them to stand up and not lose to fear even if it would mean dying in battle as they would all die to protect their empire but also what would cause victory for the Romans in this case despite suffering so much casualties was that their army was larger in number consisting of the full force of eastern and western legions and not to mention the fact that the Goth commander Alatheus and his Alan cavalry defected to the Romans. At the end however, Valentinian I too died in this alternate version and again due to his own anger resulting in a burst blood vessel in his brain as how it happened in his real death in 375 but at least his death and the intensity of his anger that caused it was frightening enough to scare Fritigern away and never return as this incident of Valentinian’s death happened right in front of Fritigern. Now in this case with Fritigern escaping the battlefield out of fear together with his new loyal Roman ally Theodosius, his Greuthungi commander Saphrax dying in battle, Valdis disappearing, and Alatheus defecting to the Romans, the outcome in real history wherein Fritigern and his Goths were free to pillage their way through Thrace while Alatheus and Saphrax would raid all the way into Illyria and Pannonia would not happen, instead the Romans seeing how close they were to losing would take this as a lesson to strengthen their defenses in the Balkans where the Goths had invaded and also due to realizing that their division almost caused them their defeat, the Romans would take this experience as a lesson that both eastern and western empires should cooperate more with each other. Now back to the historical version of the Battle of Adrianople and its aftermath, following the Goths’ victory and death of Valens, they were invigorated to pillage everything in their path though due to lacking siege weapons were unable to besiege the city of Adrianople and later Constantinople. Following the Battle of Adrianople in 378, the Goths attempted to besiege the eastern capital Constantinople but were crushed in a small battle against the army of the city wherein the city’s defense was supervised by Valens’ wife Empress Albia Dominica and also in this small battle, the defending Roman army had Arab mercenaries with them which proved effective in defeating the Goths and it was even said that one Arab soldier charged into battle naked and slit a Goth’s throat sucking his blood out which caused so much fear in the Goths that they fled, though still continued pillaging through the Balkans. The situation with the Goths however was partially dealt with by Theodosius the Younger himself who in reality instead of betraying Rome and siding with the Goths was recalled to Moesia from his retirement in Spain in late 378 wherein he actually campaigned successfully against the Goths. It was though only in early 379 when Gratian finally arrived in the east after defeating the Alemanni- particularly Lentienses- invaders but knowing he could not rule both east and west alone due to his young age and due to the fact that the threat of the Alemanni in the Rhine was not over yet, Gratian appointed Theodosius who was the nearest most capable general around to be his eastern co-emperor based in Constantinople trusting him since Theodosius was the son of Gratian’s father’s most trusted general Count Theodosius.

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Emperor Theodosius I (r. 379-395)

Now in real history, since Theodosius I became emperor of the east, he moved his new wife Aelia Flaccilla who was also a native of Roman Spain and their infant son Arcadius to Constantinople from Spain while Theodosius set up Thessalonica as his military base in the second phase of the war against the Goths which were still devastating the Balkans. The second phase of the Gothic War from 379 to 382 began out terribly as Theodosius decided to attack the Goths using retired army veterans, inexperienced recruits that were forced into the army despite them mutilating their hands to be spared, and hired Gothic mercenaries and this only resulted in most of the army deserting and the Gothic mercenaries defecting Fritigern who they were actually loyal to. In Pannonia meanwhile, the Gothic threat was ended by the Western Roman army led by the generals sent by Gratian which were the same Arbogast and Bauto who were mentioned here in the battle and after being driven out of Pannonia, the Goths were now successfully pushed back to Thrace by the summer of 381. The Gothic War then finally ended in 382 when Theodosius decided to just make peace with them since he knew there could be no military victory against the Goths and by 382, the Gothic leaders Fritigern, Alatheus, and Saphrax were no longer mentioned again, and it is unclear on what dates they died.

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Athanaric, Ruler of the Thervingi Goths, died in 381 in Constantinople

Another incident that happened before the war ended was that in 381, Fritigern’s rival Thervingi ruler Athanaric was exiled by his own tribesmen making him seek refuge in the Roman Empire wherein Athanaric unexpectedly came to Constantinople making a deal with Theodosius that made Athanaric’s Gothic army be settled into the eastern empire as federate troops while Athanaric after seeing the impressiveness of Constantinople as the imperial city, came to realize that there was no more reason to have war with the Romans which perhaps made him choose to settle peace with Theodosius and shortly after, Athanaric died in Constantinople sometime in 381 and was given a funeral with full honors by Theodosius. Basically what happened after 382 was that Theodosius did the same as he did with Athanaric’s men a year earlier which meant that the remaining Goths he signed peace with were allowed to settle within the Roman Empire though under their own leaders but were at least successfully made into Foederati or allied troops to the Roman army and this peace agreement with the Goths turned out to be successful, at least until Theodosius I’s death in 395. These new Gothic Foederati troops in the Roman army became of use when Theodosius fought civil wars first against the usurper Magnus Maximus of Britannia between 383 and 388 and against the usurper Eugenius and the now traitor general Arbogast between 392 and 394. The Goths including their future ruler Alaric I then played a major role in helping Theodosius win a decisive victory over Arbogast and Eugenius at the Battle of Frigidus in 394 .

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Alaric I, King of the Visigoths (r. 395-410)

The devastating part however only came after Theodosius’ death in 395 when Alaric rose to power and declared himself king thus making his men independent from Roman rule despite him being given the title of Magister Militum later on. The real consequence of the Romans’ defeat at Adrianople in 378 and the conclusion of the war that allowed Goths to settle in the empire was truly evident in the event that Alaric and his Goths suddenly sacked Rome in 410 which marked the beginning of the end of the Western Roman Empire as after this, the Goths were again free to roam pillage the west until they eventually settled in Gaul and later in Spain, breaking away from the Western Empire and forming their own kingdom.

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Battle of the Frigidus, 394- victory of Theodosius I and Gothic allies against Arbogast, art by Amelianvs
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Alaric I and his Visigoths sack Rome, 410

 

Now in the case of this alternate story wherein the Romans won the Battle of Adrianople, there would be no ongoing Gothic threat in the Balkans, therefore no need for the new western Augustus Gratian to appoint Theodosius the Younger as his eastern co-emperor especially since in this case Valens would still be alive and Theodosius too won’t be around to either be appointed as co-emperor or try to take the throne since he had joined the Goths and with their defeat, he fled with them back to the Gothic homeland.

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Bust of Emperor Valens

With the Romans victorious against the Goths in 378, Valens as the most senior emperor of the whole empire would come to realize his mistake especially in attempting to fight the Goths alone wherein he could have gotten killed as he did in real history if not for Valentinian coming to his aid. Here Valens would see that he should have learned to not make his insecurities of feeling that he has not gotten any credit to get the best of him because eventually he did defeat the Goths and gained credit for it, therefore he also learned that he needed to be patient as the time will come for him to earn the praise from his people that used to despise him before. Now because the Eastern Romans won with the help of the west, Valens too would learn that working together as Romans is definitely important especially if the threat comes from outside, which was here the case with the Goths and that one division or particularly the emperor of one division of the empire shouldn’t think he should compete with the other especially since they were still one empire after all except divided with co-emperors. Now after 378, Valens would continue ruling the east as the most senior emperor of the empire as he is the oldest of the emperors and now also a respected figure and military hero while in the west Gratian would rule as his uncle’s western co-Augustus and since the war with both the Goths and the invading Alemanni in the Rhine was over, Gratian would use the time to practice becoming a strong ruler the way his late father was. Since Valentinian I was dead, Gratian would now be on his own to run the west and due to his experience in actually defending the Rhine, he would already have what it takes to manage a complex and war-torn empire and all these experiences of his in these hard times would sure enough shape Gratian into a wise and not only a tough emperor.

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Emperor Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I

Meanwhile, following Valentinian I’s death in 378 in this story, his younger 7-year-old son Valentinian II here would now be made not only a Caesar of Gratian but his co-Augustus of the west though due to his young age, he would still be under the regency of his mother Empress Justina while Count Theodosius the actual protector of Valentinian II would eventually retire from military service and return to his native Spain after 378 due to his old age as by this time he could already be in his late 60s or early 70s but his sudden retirement would also be because of the sadness he felt after discovering his son who he always thought would be a loyal soldier to Rome betrayed Rome and joined the Goths and worse even becoming a top general of the Goths. Since Count Theodosius retired from his military service in the west, he would be replaced as the new Magister Militum by Richomeres who would definitely be a loyal general to both Gratian and Valentinian II while Bauto who survived the battle would be the west’s cavalry general or Magister Equitum while both young soldiers Stilicho and Arbogast would quickly rise up the ranks to becoming both Magister Peditum or infantry generals of the west due to their valor shown in the Battle of Adrianople. The Greuthungi Goth leader Alatheus meanwhile after swearing his loyalty to Rome would be given land in Pannonia and command of his Alan cavalry as the empire’s new barbarian federate troops in the scenario of a future war against possibly the Goths, Franks, Sassanids, or even the Huns as the Battle of Adrianople also showed the Romans that they need barbarian allies who know the fighting styles of the barbarians in order to fight the barbarians and since Alatheus was inspired by how orderly and sophisticated the world of the Romans was and not chaotic like the world of the Goths where he came from, he would surely become a loyal commander to Rome despite being a Goth. In the east, the general Trajan who Valens demoted before the Battle of Adrianople would turn out to do his job well as Constantinople’s city prefect or mayor charged with keeping order and building up the imperial city to something even greater than that of Rome while Lupicinus who has survived the battle and gained more military knowledge from it would end up becoming the east’s Magister Militum. The character of Flavius Anthemius meanwhile who was mentioned here was true enough the same Anthemius who later became the city prefect of Constantinople that built the famous and massive Theodosian Walls in the 410s and just like in real history, Anthemius here would become Constantinople’s city prefect and in the future would built the same 3-layered walls we know of except since there would be no Emperor Theodosius II that the walls was named after due to Theodosius II’s grandfather Theodosius I betraying Rome, these walls would maybe be called the “Anthemian Walls” after Anthemius which would do the same as in real history in protecting Constantinople for more than a thousand years to come. Back to Valens, since he survived that battle in 378, he would most probably die by around 395- the same year Theodosius I died in real history- and since Valens had no sons , he will sure enough be succeeded by his nephew Valentinian II as the new eastern Augustus and now both Gratian and his younger brother would rule as western and eastern co-emperors the way Valentinian I and Valens did before them while Gratian who would definitely be married by this time would most possibly have a son so there would be no succession problems.

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The Theodosian (aka. Anthemian) Walls of Constantinople, built in the early 5th century 

 

The biggest change in this story now happens to be that Theodosius I better known as “Theodosius the Great” would not become eastern emperor in 379 and this would surely change a lot of things. Without Theodosius I for one, the Goths would not be settled into the empire under their own leaders but this too would not happen since they were already defeated back in 378, though the even more pivotal changes that would happen if Theodosius would not be emperor would surely be that Nicene Christianity would not be made into the empire’s official religion being made superior among all others, thus all religious beliefs whether Christian (Arian or Nicene) or Pagan would still be tolerated in the empire under Gratian and Valentinian II, therefore no persecutions of Pagans, no destruction of ancient temples and traditions, and no banning of the Olympics games as what happened in the reign of Theodosius I.

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Emperor Theodosius I the Great

With Theodosius I not around too, there would also be no reason for his old friend Magnus Maximus in Britannia to start a civil war against Gratian in 383 as he did this in hopes of being Theodosius’ co-emperor, also there would be no civil war against the usurper Eugenius in 392 as Valentinian II would sure enough grow up to be a capable ruler and not a puppet as he was when Theodosius I was emperor in reality meaning Valentinian II would not be betrayed due to his weak leadership making the army led by Arbogast be in favor of Eugenius, though Arbogast would still possibly have his own imperial ambitions but since either Gratian or Valentinian II would turn out to be strong rulers, they would soon enough discover Arbogast’s treachery and later have him executed. Lastly, without Theodosius around in the empire at this point and since in this story Theodosius had not retired to Hispania as his father was not executed, Theodosius here would have not been married to Aelia Flaccilla, therefore his sons and later the incompetent emperors Arcadius and Honorius would not even be born meaning there would be no need to permanently divide the empire between east and west as what happened in reality with the death of Theodosius I.

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Emperor Theodosius I the Great of the Eastern Roman Empire, art by myself

Now since I have mentioned Theodosius betraying Rome and after 378 fully becoming one of the Goths by joining Fritigern in returning to the Goths’ homeland across the Danube, there could be many different possibilities on what could happen to him. Since the Goths had lost, Fritigern would have to think of ways of survival especially since the Goths would again have to face the threat of the Huns and now they would stand no chance especially after being beaten back by the Romans so Fritigern would have no choice but to ally himself with his old nemesis Athanaric and both be co-rulers of the Thervingi Goths in order to stand up against the Huns or even plan another invasion of the Roman Empire. As for Theodosius, he would not only become Fritigern’s and later both his and Athanaric’s top general but would also be adopted as Fritigern’s son and successor and in all those years, Theodosius living that hard life in the cold land of the Goths as opposed to the easier life he lived before in the warmer and more fertile Roman Empire would be shaped into a ruthless killer for the Goths that would be brainwashed to hate Rome making him kill Romans himself with such brutality like no other. As for the female Greuthungi leader Valdis who fled the Battle of Adrianople after her defeat to Richomeres, she would return to her homeland and Greuthungi tribe north of the Black Sea to now be the sole regent of her nephew Vithericus as Alatheus defected to the Romans and Saphrax died in battle. What could happen here is that Fritigern wanting a stronger and unified Gothic nation would fully unite his Thervingi tribe with the Greuthungi by marrying Theodosius to Valdis and since Fritigern due to old age and Athanaric as well would die some time sooner, the most possible new ruler of the united Goths would be both Theodosius and Valdis together while Vithericus would might as well be poisoned to death to stop him as a threat to both rulers and due to Theodosius as a Roman having the knowledge of their more superior battle tactics, the Goths would sure enough learn Roman tactics and prove to be an even deadlier enemy to the Romans when they would come to invade the empire again. The most possible scenario for the Goths to strike again and this time with Theodosius both leading them as their ruler and the candidate for the imperial throne with the backing of the Goths would be the death of Valens in 395 and since Theodosius being last in the Roman Empire in 378 would most possibly never have heard that Gratian’s half-brother Valentinian II existed, so he would use the death of Valens and the supposed vacancy of the throne in the east as an excuse to invade the empire and install himself as emperor, therefore being emperor of both Goths and Romans.

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The Roman Empire divided between east (purple) given to Arcadius and west (red) given to Honorius at Theodosius I’s death in 395 (in reality)

 

What could possibly happen here is that Theodosius with Valdis could gather a full force of a new Gothic army plus new Hunnish allies, with a new sidekick being the young Alaric, and a Roman ally which is Theodosius’ fellow Spaniard Magnus Maximus who at the time was based in Britannia to wage a deadly empire-wide war against Gratian and Valentinian II but since Gratian and Valentinian II learned that they should act as one in such challenging times, they would command the full force of the Roman army to battle the forces of the Goths and Huns in an epic battle worth talking about thousands of years later.

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Deadly Hunnish cavalry

In this epic battle that is to come, it is either that the united forces of both Western and Eastern Romans plus their new Frankish, Gothic, and Alemanni Federate armies defeat the full force of the Goths and Huns and finally have Theodosius tried and executed for treason, or that Theodosius wins and kills both Gratian and Valentinian II and then rules a super-empire covering the entire Europe that would turn the tide of history subjugating the Romans under barbarian Gothic rule with Theodosius I as the “Emperor of the Goths and Romans”. Another outcome though could be that after Theodosius defeats and kills both Gratian and Valentinian II, he would see his own mistakes in the past, abandon his Goths by sending them away together with Valdis, and come back to his senses becoming a true Roman once again and now with both Gratian and Valentinian II defeated and killed, Theodosius would end up becoming once again an emperor of a united Roman Empire but what would happen after would be unknown as it could be either that his half-Gothic children with Valdis could succeed him or he could marry again and sure enough establish a stable dynasty that would continue to preserve the rich legacy of Rome. Personally, I would go with the possible outcome of Theodosius taking control of the Roman Empire absorbing it into his new Gothic-Roman Empire which would totally change the course of European history since this could lead to a new Roman Empire reborn that would be under new Gothic leadership but retaining its old Roman values, systems, literature, and science and technology though with this new empire coming into existence, there would be no reason for the Byzantine Empire to exist as Western Rome would not fall and true enough this new and even more powerful and massive super-empire spanning north to south from the Baltic Sea to Egypt and west to east from Portugal to Syria and all the way to the Volga River in Russia could become a world power strong enough with such a massive army of Romans and Goths to face the deadliest threats known to man such as the Huns and Sassanids which they could surely easily defeat. Well, it is up for you viewers to decide what kind of outcome goes best with this alternate history story if the Romans beat the Goths at Adrianople and if the Goths and Romans go to war again.     

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Map of the Hypothetical Gothic-Roman Super-Empire of Theodosius I

 

And now I have now reached the end of the first chapter of my Byzantine history fan fiction series and though this is only first one, it may seem very long but this is particularly because the Battle of Adrianople was one event in Roman history with such a great variety of characters and true enough had such great consequences for the future of Rome as less than a hundred years after this battle, the Western Roman Empire came to an end in 476 leaving only the eastern half surviving as the Byzantine Empire. The defeat of the Romans at Adrianople led to the Goths being settled into the empire under their own leaders in order to settle peace with them wherein at first the Goths were loyal allies to Rome until the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the rise of the new Visigoth king Alaric I which led to the sack of Rome in 410 and the establishment of the Visigoth Kingdom in Gaul and Spain in the 5th century. The victory of the Goths in 378 and their invasion of the Roman Empire too led to the Thervingi Goths becoming the Visigoths who would settle in the empire wherein this would lead them to establishing what would be later on the ancestor state of medieval Spain, while the Greuthungi Goths eventually settling in the empire as well would a century later invade Italy and form the Ostrogoth Kingdom. In real history, the aftermath of the Goths’ victory at the Battle of Adrianople did have a lot of negative outcomes for the Roman Empire, especially the west since it led to the formation of new independent kingdoms like the Visigoth Kingdom of Gaul that would further weaken Roman authority in the west, though the victory of the Goths in 378 and their settlement into the empire also had positive outcomes and the most notable one being that the Visigoth Kingdom in Gaul founded by Alaric’s successors would one day redeem themselves by allying with the Western Romans in 451 when the Huns led by Attila finally invaded Roman territory as here the Visigoths under their king Theodoric I fought side by side with the Roman general Flavius Aetius at the Battle of Chalons in Gaul which was possibly 10 times even more epic that the Battle of Adrianople in 378 with even more casualties on both sides but at the end, thanks to the support of the Visigoths, the Western Roman Empire was spared from the deadly threat of Attila and his Huns although since the Western Empire was already weakened by too much wars and barbarian invasions as well as 2 sackings of Rome first by the Visigoths (410) and the Vandals (455), the empire was eventually only left with Italy thus leading to the fall of the Western Empire in 476. Now in this case, if the Romans were able to manage to defeat the Goths in Adrianople, the fall of Rome- at least the Western Empire- would still be inevitable as sooner or later the Huns, even possibly led by Attila could invade both eastern and western empires but since both halves learned to fight as one after almost losing to the Goths in 378, they could possibly manage to defeat the Huns and their new Gothic allies that they have subjugated the moment their invasion comes in the 5th century. Now before I end, I would then say that the Battle of Adrianople with a Roman victory would not do much in changing the course of Roman history, as the empire was bound to fall anyway ever since the Crisis of the 3rd Century though most possibly only the west which was more threatened by barbarian invasions would be the one to fall as the east becoming the Byzantine Empire would most definitely have more chances of survival as their empire included many rich cities and richer lands. On the other hand, unless the rare possibility of Theodosius betraying Rome and becoming a Gothic ruler would actually happen, this would true enough change the course of history like no other way especially if he were to rule both Romans and Goths together thus establishing an empire more powerful than any other in its time. Now for the 4th century, this topic of an alternate outcome to the Battle of Adrianople and the Gothic War with a Roman victory only came to my mind lately and after being inspired by Dovahhatty’s episode XVII “Imperial Wrath”, I just thought for myself that if Valentinian did not die from his own anger in 375, he could have been there to help his brother Valens eliminate the Gothic threat that just came into the empire the year after Valentinian’s death and since Valentinian was known to be a better military emperor than Valens, his skill would help the Romans defeat the Goths. Also, this team-up between Valentinian and Valens had also for me turned out to be one of the topics I have always wanted to do for a fan fiction ever since after again watching Dovahhatty’s video in his “Unbiased History of Romeseries. On the other hand, I also wanted to add a plot twist to this story which was Theodosius being seduced by Fritigern to joining the Goths and the Gothic leader Alatheus defecting to Rome and for these plot twists, I was greatly inspired by the storyline of season 3 of Cobra Kai. Personally, I think Theodosius is a very interesting and controversial figure who is the kind of Byzantine emperor I’d like to experiment on as in reality he is someone who should have not been in power as his actions as emperor helped indirectly cause more division that weakened the Roman Empire, for instance allowing the Goths to settle in the empire, so I would see that he would be better off joining the Goths so I did just that when writing this story. Well, I hope this was a very interesting and very complex fan fiction considering it is my first in this series. Now in this Byzantine fan fiction series I am making, I just have to say here that the stories will not be connected with each other in the alternate history plot and up next, the second chapter of my series will be focused on another possible what if scenario in the 5th century set in year 472 if the Western Roman emperor Anthemius was not assassinated and instead he assassinated his evil puppet master Ricimer if he received the secret letter from his Byzantine (Eastern Roman) co-emperor Leo I, now could this other outcome of the story alter the course of history by slowing down the fall of Western Rome wherein it would live even beyond 476? The next chapter too will discuss the actual aftermath of the Battle of Adrianople in real history resulting in the Goths and other Germanic barbarians like the Vandals and Franks taking over the western half of the Roman Empire while the Huns would invade the empire in full force. Well, this all for chapter I of Byzantine Alternate history, this is Powee Celdran, the Byzantine Time Traveler… thank you for your time!  

Next Story: Byzantine Alternate History Chapter II- 5th Century