Most Favorite to Least Favorite- Ranking the 12 Centuries of Byzantine History

Posted by Powee Celdran

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Welcome back to the Byzantium Blogger! As for now, I will be taking a break from the extremely long but informative Byzantine Alternate History series in which I have progressed very far, at this point I have completed the 8th chapter of this 12-part series. To break my consistent streak of Byzantine fan fiction articles now that I am in between chapter VIII and chapter IX of my series, I have decided to come up with another more entertaining special edition article which will mark the end of the 2nd quarter of this year 2021. Previously 3 months ago, I did another special edition article marking the end of the first quarter of this year wherein I asked 5 of my friends to give their own point of views on quotes quoted by Byzantine era people to see what these ancient quotes mean these days. This time, my special edition article to mark the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd quarter of this year is a more personal one which will be a list ranking the 12 centuries of Byzantine history (4th-15th centuries) from my point of view from 1 being my most to 12 being my least favorite one. Now as may would know, the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire lived on for an exact 1,123 years (330-1453), meaning 12 centuries of stories to tell and within these 12 centuries were a series of ups and downs wherein the empire at some points would be a dominant power then at some points lose it and have to fight to defend its borders and then once again become a power again, and so the cycle goes on. Basically, the Byzantine Empire was the Roman Empire itself continued except being based in the east with Constantinople as its capital throughout its 1,100-year existence- except for a brief period of time between 1204 and 1261 when the capital fell under the rule of the Latin Empire or basically the Crusaders- and throughout these 1,100-year existence there are a lot of stories to be told. Now out of the 12 centuries of the Byzantine Empire’s existence, some really had a lot of exciting moments within them while some had important turning points in world history, but some just had less stories to tell compared to others. For this article, I will rank the 12 centuries from my personal best to worst according to how eventful these centuries were. I will both put a summary of each century but will evaluate them by describing why I find each century more interesting or less interesting based on everything I have learned about Byzantine history in the past 2 years that I have been reading up on it, therefore this article is mostly based on my insights and did not involve heavy research. In my opinion, I find centuries filled with action-packed events as the more interesting, fascinating, and memorable ones compared to those that had less happening, and so here I would place the more eventful centuries on the higher tiers of this ranking and the less eventful ones on the lower ones. In the history of Byzantium however, each of its 12 centuries of existence had a lot of events happening, although some centuries may have just been more eventful than others. Now to find out which centuries I find more fascinating and which ones I find less fascinating, you will have to find out by scrolling down the list, and before beginning, the previous 8 chapters of my alternate history series will be linked to the respective centuries they are set in, except for the 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries as I have not yet written any alternate history chapters yet for these 4 mentioned centuries. In addition, each century that will be ranked on this list will be guided by images of important events that took place in these respective centuries, in which most of these images would be Byzantine fan art made by either myself or other Byzantine history fans that do art related to it.

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Around the World in the Byzantine Era Part I (300-1000)

Around the World in the Byzantine Era Part II (1000-1461)


 

1. The 10th Century           

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Map of the 10th century Byzantine Empire (purple), from Byzantine Tales

My personal favorite out of the 12 centuries of the Byzantine Empire’s existence has to be the 10th century or the century of the Byzantine Renaissance, which is at the same time a very popular era in Byzantine history that is also fascinating to a lot, and there are just so many reasons to say why this century happens to be so popular among Byzantine history fans such as myself. First of all, if there were to be any century in Byzantine history that had so much happening both within the empire and beyond, it is the 10th century which featured Byzantium under the Macedonian Dynasty entering a golden age of military and cultural dominance over the known world while at the same time, this century shows exactly just how complex Byzantium was especially in politics and succession which makes Byzantine history ever more fascinating. The intriguing roller-coaster of the 10th century begins with the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise (886-912) wherein Byzantium is still fighting to defend itself against various attacks by Arab powers, which is then followed by a complicated succession crisis after Leo VI’s death where his son the young Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos is placed under regents all fighting each other for power all while Byzantium is threatened by their next-door northern neighbor, the Bulgarian Empire ruled by Tsar Simeon the Great. As the 10th century progresses, the complicated situation of Constantine VII’s regency is taken care of in 920 when the ambitious low-born admiral Romanos Lekapenos takes over the throne not to depose but protect young Constantine VII who he actually turns out to sideline, but even though he may seem to be a usurper, Romanos I ruled the empire well as during his 24-year reign (920-944), he was able to end the war with Bulgaria through the diplomacy while the Byzantines too had totally managed to turn the tide of war against their Arab enemies in the east to the offensive but Romanos I unfortunately did not stay in power forever as in 944 he was overthrown by his sons who were then overthrown by the legitimate ruler Constantine VII who then becomes the sole emperor.

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Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos of Byzantium (r. 913-959), art by myself

Constantine VII’s reign as sole emperor (945-959) is also one of my favorite moments in Byzantine history as Constantine VII as emperor had shown a great example that Byzantium at this time was not only a military power but a cultural one which was perfectly demonstrated by the emperor himself being an intellectual who published 4 books himself about the Byzantine Empire’s history, court etiquette, and governance system while at the same time, he was able also able reveal to the world how Byzantium was a superior sophisticated culture by impressing foreign diplomats by sitting on a mechanical throne that lifted itself up while the mechanical lions beside it projected an actual sound of lion and the fake birds on the golden tree next to it sang. Constantine VII after his death in 959 was succeeded by his son Romanos II who despite ruling very quickly (959-963) had a lot of accomplishments in his reign which were although achieved not really by him but by his successful generals such as the brothers Nikephoros and Leo Phokas and their nephew John Tzimiskes who successfully crushed the powerful Arab armies a number of times in Cilicia and Syria while at the same time in 961, Nikephoros Phokas was able to reclaim the entire island of Crete itself from the Arabs after a long and brutal campaign.

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Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963-969)

The second half of the 10th century gets even more exciting when Nikephoros II Phokas becomes the emperor himself in 963 after marrying the empress Theophano, the wife of the late emperor Romanos II who died earlier that year, and in Nikephoros II’s reign Byzantium expands even more by conquest that a large number of territories they had lost over the past 3 centuries to the Arabs including the region of Cilicia, the island of Cyprus, and the city of Antioch itself are taken back by the Byzantines, thus forever weakening the Arab powers that had threatened Byzantium for the past 3 centuries. Nikephoros II as emperor was a brilliant general and strategist but nothing more as he failed as a politician in terms of pleasing his people and in foreign policy that when failing to negotiate with the Bulgarians, war between them resumed. Due to his harsh taxation policies and growing unpopularity, Nikephoros II in 969 was assassinated in his sleep by his nephew the general John Tzimiskes who then succeeded his uncle as emperor who just like his uncle was more or less a warrior emperor but at least succeeded more as a politician. John I Tzimiskes as emperor (969-976) was successful in fighting wars against the new power of the Kievan Rus’ army that had invaded Bulgaria which he defeated resulting in most the Bulgarian state itself to be absorbed into Byzantium and following this, John I returned to campaigning in the east winning more decisive victories against the Arabs again but before returning to Constantinople in early 976 he suddenly died.

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Emperor Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer of Byzantium (r. 976-1025)

John I after his death in 976 was succeeded by the legitimate ruler Basil II, son of the previous emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano, and would be the last ruler of the 10th century, although his early reign was not really stable as he was challenged by the ambitious rival generals Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas who believed that Basil II was unfit to be emperor due to being raised in the palace. Basil II however proved them wrong and in 989 after making an alliance with the Kievan Rus’ Empire that provided him with an army of 6,000 warriors which would become the Varangian Guard, Basil had defeated Bardas Phokas and 991, Basil II’s rule would be fully secure following the surrender of Bardas Skleros allowing Basil to grow the empire even more that by the time the next century began, the Byzantines had managed to conquer the entire Bulgarian Empire itself. Though the 10th century ended before the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria finished, the Byzantine Empire at the end of the 10th century was a dominant military and cultural power in the Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe that the entire Kievan Rus’ Empire (consisting of what is now Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia) fell under Byzantium’s sphere of influence by adopting the Orthodox Christianity of Byzantium, while at the same time, their rival empire which was the Holy Roman Empire in Germany looked up to them in terms of culture, and in the south the Arab powers that once threatened Byzantium were now the ones threatened by Byzantium’s growing power.

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Byzantine Cataphract cavalry unload in Crete’s shore using ramps, 960

Overall, I would say the 10th century had the complete set of everything that would define the history of Byzantium including epic battles, ambitious yet brilliant generals with unique strategies like Nikephoros Phokas and John Tzimiskes, sophisticated and superior technology unheard of in the Middle Ages including the superweapon Greek Fire and mechanical thrones, superior intellectual culture in Constantinople, a decadent imperial court rich in luxury, lots of violence including blinding and assassinations, scheming eunuchs behind the throne, and ambitious women in power such as the empress Zoe Karbonopsina who ruled as regent for her young son Constantine VII in the complicated regency period (913-920) and Empress Theophano who was the wife of two emperors Romanos II and Nikephoros II, both who they say she had killed. It is for all these reasons why I would say it is the century in Byzantine history that fascinates me most, and other than all these reasons that I had mentioned above, what makes this period fascinating too was that there was never any dull moment in this century as every step of the way was action-packed and most of them were all the wars the Byzantines fought as they were not only fighting against one enemy but many including Arabs, Bulgarians, the Rus, and Pechenegs while at the same time there was a lot going on in this century especially in foreign relations as here Byzantium made contact with the various powers of the time including the Holy Roman Empire and a lot more. Now by having so much going on all in one century, I would also say that the 10th century is really the century that defined Byzantium the same way the 15th century or Renaissance was for Italy, the 16th century for Spain, the 17th for the Dutch, 18th for France, and 19th for England, and true enough it is also the 10th century where Byzantium gets a lot of attention in visualized media even centuries ago as the famous illustrated manuscript the Madrid Skylitzes specifically focuses a lot on the events of the 10th century and even up to this day, a lot of Byzantine related media such as the recent graphic novel Theophano: A Byzantine Tale is set in this period, and so are some of my Lego films including The Rise of Phokas (2019) and Killing a Byzantine Emperor (2019). 

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Emperor Constantine VII hosting a feast, art by Byzantine Tales
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Nikephoros Phokas enters Constantinople in 963, Madrid Skylitzes
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Byzantine navy using Greek Fire against the Rus’ fleet outside Constantinople’s Walls, 941

To learn more about Byzantium in the 10th century, read Chapter VII of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

2. The 5th Century           

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Roman Empire 5th century map, dissolution of the west (red).

For second place, I would put the 5th century which was the second century of the Byzantine Empire’s existence but also a very crucial point in their history as it was in this century when the Eastern Roman Empire was already a concept as a separate empire from the Western Roman Empire based in Constantinople, while the 5th century was also the century when the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium became the sole Roman Empire itself following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476. Now the story of 5th century Byzantium until 476 is basically told as a story of two parallel empires which are the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire based in Constantinople and its twin satellite empire the Western Roman Empire based in Ravenna wherein one empire (the east) is strong but still struggling to survive against the massive invasions of barbarian powers while the other one (the west) is weak and dying without any chance to live long anymore unless fully dissolved or absorbed into the eastern empire. The 5th century however happens to be more famous for the story of the Western Roman Empire which is already at a breaking point as when the century begins and progresses, the western empire is ruled by incompetent rulers like Honorius (395-423) and Valentinian III (425-455) while most of the empire is already falling apart being invaded by several barbarian people that have wither settled in it or invaded from beyond including the Visigoths who take over the Western Roman lands of Gaul and Hispania, the Burgundians and Franks that take parts of Gaul, and the Vandals that take over North Africa, while here the Romans completely lose control of Britain at the beginning of the century.

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Battle of Chalons, 451

While several barbarian powers take over territories of the Western Roman Empire, a larger threat is yet to arrive which was Atilla the Hun and his rapidly growing Hunnish Empire which is not only a threat to the Eastern and Western Roman Empires but to these barbarian powers too, thus the Western Romans and some barbarian powers like the Visigoths, Burgundians, and Franks join forces against Atilla’s Huns and together led by the Roman general Aetius they manage to achieve the impossible in defeating Attila’s forces at the Battle of Chalons in 451, and after Atilla’s death in 453 the Huns from being the terror of the world simply vanished as a major threat. Despite the Western Romans’ victory over Atilla, the following years were not as favorable anymore as in 454 they lost their greatest general Aetius who was assassinated by the emperor Valentinian III out of envy and in 455 Valentinian III was assassinated which leads to conflict with the new power of the Vandal Kingdom of North Africa under their King Genseric who also in 455 launches an invasion on Rome and sacks it. The 5th century saw two major attacks on Rome itself first by the Visigoth king Alaric I in 410 and in 455 by the Vandals in which both forever weakened the power of Western Rome, although after 455 there were still some emperors that had the ambition to save and revive the weakened Roman Empire and reconquer their lands the barbarians took from them and these emperors included the capable soldier Majorian (457-461) and the Eastern Roman aristocrat Anthemius (467-472) but sadly both never achieved their dreams as they were in fact both puppets of Ricimer, the ambitious barbarian general in Roman imperial service who was responsible too for killing both of these emperors for being too ambitious and not being his intended puppets.

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End of the Western Roman Empire with the surrender of the last Western Roman emperor Romulus Augustus to Odoacer, 476

After Anthemius’ death in 472 it was all downhill for the Western Roman Empire which was now only reduced to Italy, thus it was only a matter of time that the western empire would disappear and just 4 years later in 476, one small event brought the Western Roman Empire to its complete end and this was simply when the barbarian general Odoacer marched into the empire’s capital Ravenna and forced the last Western emperor Romulus Augustus to surrender which he did and so ended the Western Roman Empire which was replaced by Odoacer’s personal Kingdom of Italy. Meanwhile, the Eastern Roman Empire had a much different story in the 5th century which was as I would say more or less not as exciting in the century’s earlier half but more exciting in its second half. The earlier part of the 5th century did not have much happening for the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium except for the rule of the incompetent Arcadius (395-408) where the century begins although he did not really live long enough and following his death in 408 he was succeeded by his young son Theodosius II who later grew up to be a more competent ruler who ruled for a full 42 years (408-450), and in his long reign he was able to achieve a lot as a peace loving palace scholar emperor and his achievements included the construction of Constantinople’s massive land walls named after him even though he did not really have much of a part in building it, but in his reign he also compiled a code of laws for the empire, established universities, and oversaw a major Church Council.

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Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II (r. 408-450)

It was also in Theodosius II’s reign when Atilla was expanding his empire but wanting to get away from any major conflict, Theodosius II agreed to pay heavy tribute to Atilla annually, which however only made Atilla’s army stronger that despite their agreement, Atilla still invaded Eastern Roman territory but turned away when failing to besiege Constantinople‘s walls which already proved to be an effective defense system for the Byzantine capital. Theodosius II’s long rule came to an end when he died from a horse-riding accident in 450 and having no sons, he was succeeded by the general Marcian who married Theodosius II’s sister Pulcheria and as emperor, Marcian oversaw the major Church Council of Chalcedon in 451 and when dealing with the major threat of Atilla, he unlike Theodosius responded to it with force by sending armies to invade Atilla’s base in Central Europe itself which then contributed to Atilla’s downfall in 453. After Marcian’s death in 457, he was succeeded by Leo I the Thracian who being only a common soldier was appointed as emperor by Aspar, the powerful barbarian general serving the eastern empire who happened to be the actual power behind Marcian and Theodosius II before him. The story of the 5th century for the eastern empire then gets more exciting during Leo I’s reign (457-474) as Leo was someone who may have seemed unambitious and useless as an emperor being only a commoner by origin but as his rule progressed, he actually turned out to be ambitious yet ruthless with a strong desire to be independent that in 468 he launched a major invasion of the Vandal Kingdom of North Africa itself by sending 1,000 ships to punish the Vandals for sacking Rome in 455, though at the end this invasion failed but Leo I still succeeded in making himself an independent ruler with his own dynasty by killing off his power hungry puppet master Aspar in 471. Leo I was later succeeded by his son-in-law and general Zeno after Leo’s death in 474 and for me Zeno is one of the most interesting emperors of Byzantium and he is one of the reasons too why the 5th century makes 2nd place in this list.

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Zeno the Isaurian, Byzantine emperor (r. 474-475/ 476-491), art by myself

As for Zeno, he was originally an outsider as he was an Isaurian chief named Tarasis Kodisa coming from the people of the mountains of Asia Minor that the people of Constantinople saw as primitive and uncivilized and basically because of his origins, Zeno was not accepted by his people that his rule was challenged countless times by ambitious generals that one time between 475 and 476, Zeno was in fact completely overthrown by Leo I’s brother-in-law Basiliscus who Zeno later overthrew himself. In addition, Zeno was also the Eastern Roman emperor in 476, the year the Western Roman Empire was abolished, therefore Zeno became the first emperor to rule the Eastern Roman Empire as the sole Roman Empire and throughout his reign, his position and that of the empire was left very challenged both internally and externally and the biggest threat here happened to be the Ostrogoth Kingdom of the ambitious king Theodoric the Great, although Zeno succeeded in overcoming Theodoric by turning him away from Byzantium and instead having him invade Italy. Zeno at the end at least managed to die in 491 peacefully without being ousted from power again but more importantly he left the eastern empire more stable than how he had founded it, although Zeno with his wife Ariadne had no children so after Zeno’s death Ariadne married the finance minister Anastasius I who as the next emperor was even far more successful especially in the managing the economy. Now, I would put the 5th century as my 2nd place in this list not only for the Eastern Roman Empire’s story but for the combined stories of both Eastern and Western Roman empires as one, as the 5th century was crucial for both and even though the earlier part of the century for the Byzantines is not as interesting for me, the story of their twin western empire was and following the fall of the western empire in 476, it is the story of the east that becomes more exciting, therefore to sum it up this entire century was basically eventful and action-packed, although not the same way the 10th century was in terms of being totally action-packed every step of the way.

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Mosaics of the Galla Placidia Mausoleum in Ravenna, made in the 5th century

For both east and west, the 5th century saw so many memorable events of all kinds take place such as wars, religious debates and Church Councils, interesting emperors, bizarre stories such as men living above columns known as the Stylites, and cultural innovations including lavish construction projects in Constantinople from colorful mosaics to massive city walls. The more important part of the 5th century however was the drastic change of geography of the old Roman Empire into the several barbarian kingdoms of the Franks, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, Suebi, Vandals, and more, therefore this century being the transition of the Roman era into the Dark Ages for the west leaving Byzantium as the only Roman power left alive is a very crucial point in world history and thus because of how dramatic things had changed in this century, I consider it my 2nd favorite one out of the 12 centuries of Byzantium’s existence.  

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The 5th century land walls of Constantinople (Theodosian Land Walls), art by myself
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King Gaiseric and his Vandal army sack Rome, 455
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The world map after 476 with the Byzantine Empire (red) as the surviving Roman Empire

To learn more about Byzantium in the 5th century, read Chapter II of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

3. The 6th Century           

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Detailed map of the Byzantine Empire at its fullest extent under Justinian in 555 (gold)

If there was one century that everyone will come across when hearing about the Byzantine Empire which always features on general history books when briefly discussing Byzantium, this is the 6th century and this is because of no other than the reign of Byzantium’s most influential emperor Justinian I the Great (527-565) that took place here. The 6th century was then the first full century of the Byzantine Empire being the sole Roman Empire as previously mentioned, the Western Roman Empire came to an end in the previous 5th century, but it also happened that in the 6th century, the Eastern Roman Empire recovered the lands that were once part of the western empire although instead of restoring the old western empire, these lands came under the rule of the eastern empire from Constantinople.

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Emperor Justinian I the Great of Byzantium (r. 527-565)

Now, I would say that no doubt the 6th century is a very fascinating part of Byzantine history especially considering that the reign of Justinian I when all the century’s highlights took place was a long one lasting for a full 37 years. It is basically the reign of Justinian I (originally Flavius Petrus Sabbatius) that puts the 6th century in the top 3 of my list, as in his reign, almost every step of the way had a story to tell from the massive Nika riot in Constantinople that almost overthrew him in 532 which then had to be dealt with such brutality, to ambitious construction projects in Constantinople, loads of reforms, the devastating plague of 542 that wiped out so much of the empire’s including Constantinople’s population wherein Justinian himself was a victim of it but still survived, and so much more. In his reign, Justinian I had two major legacies that still live on up to this day and this includes his Code of Laws or Corpus Juris Civilis that still serves as the basis of most countries’ legal systems up to this day and the other one being no other than the impressive Hagia Sophia cathedral in Constantinople with its massive dome which did in fact only take 5 years (532-537) to build its structure, yet it is still intact up to this day. Another great legacy of Justinian I were his ambitious military campaigns to reconquer the lands that were once part of the Western Roman Empire in order to bring them back to Roman rule and in his reign, Justinian I managed to reconquer all the entire Vandal Kingdom of North Africa, all of Italy from the Ostrogoth Kingdom, and Southern Spain from the Visigoths, and the even more fascinating thing about this was that first Justinian conquered by intervening in their political struggles and that Justinian himself did not have to go himself to any of these campaigns but just stay in the palace. Other than his conquests, Justinian I was also known to have had made contact with parts of the world very distant to the Roman sphere of influence such as Sub-Saharan Africa wherein he had sent Christian missionaries to and China wherein he sent monks to learn the secret of silk making which resulted in the monks smuggling silkworms from China leading to the creation of silks in Byzantium itself.

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Court of Emperor Justinian I and Empress Theodora

Another thing that made Justinian I’s reign very eventful were the people behind his rule which included his wife Empress Theodora, the finance minister John the Cappadocian who managed to make the empire’s economy a strong and wealthy one, the jurist Tribonian who was responsible for codifying Roman law of the past thus creating the famous code of laws, the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus who were responsible for the building of great structures like the Hagia Sophia, the historian Procopius who gives us a very detailed source of this time, and the generals Belisarius and Narses who were responsible for expanding the empire through war in the years-long conquests of North Africa and Italy. By the time Justinian I died in 565, the Byzantine Empire was a very massive one basically covering the entire Mediterranean stretching west to east from Southern Spain all the way to Syria and north to south from the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine all the way down to Egypt, but with all the wars and plague that had brought too much damage by killing off a large number of people and severely weakening the economy, this massive empire would soon enough prove to be too difficult to manage considering how large it was, therefore making it exposed to future invaders as well.

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Emperor Justinian I of Byzantium and Shah Khosrow I of the Sassanid Empire, by Justinianus

Another thing that makes Justinian’s reign more action-packed therefore putting more story into the 6th century was Byzantium’s chronic war with its traditional enemy in the east which was the Sassanid Persian Empire which during Justinian’s reign was ruled by Shah Khosrow I, an equally ambitious ruler who despite being paid off by Justinian to not attack in order for the Byzantines to focus on their conquests in the west still attacked Byzantine borders from time to time. On the other hand, the 6th century had a lot more than just Justinian I’s reign and these were the events before and after his long reign, although I would say it is only Justinian I’s reign that makes the 6th century a very interesting one for me as the events before and after it were still dramatic ones but do not fascinate me much.

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Anastasius I Dicorus, Byzantine emperor (r. 491-518), art by Amelianvs

Anyway, the events that had taken place before Justinian I came to power in 527 were not as exciting but very important especially in setting the stage for Justinian’s epic projects to expand the empire as first of all, the emperor who ruled at the beginning of the century which was Anastasius I- the successor of Zeno- was responsible for strengthening and enriching the economy with his smart economic policies which later made Justinian’s ambitious projects possible, and though Anastasius I’s empire was already threatened by the Sassanids in the east, the Byzantines were still able to successfully fight them. Anastasius I died in 518 at the age of 87 leaving the empire’s economy strong and rich, but the problem was that he did not have a clear succession plan by having no sons, so instead he was succeeded by the commander of the palace guard Justin I who was Justinian’s uncle and even though Justin I as emperor coming from humble origins was illiterate, he was able to still rule well especially in protecting the Orthodox faith of the empire, therefore gaining the support of the pope in Rome, although behind Justin I’s power was really his nephew Justinian who in 527 succeeded his uncle following his death. On the other hand, the latter part of the 6th century following Justinian I’s death in 565 was for me more or less disappointing especially to see how all the hard work of Justinian to expand his empire disappeared when new barbarian invaders came in such as the Lombards who in 568 just 3 years after Justinian’s death invaded Italy making their own kingdom only just a few years after the Byzantine reconquest of it from the Ostrogoths was completed, while in the Balkans new invaders such as the Slavs and Avars appeared, and in the east the war against the traditional enemy the Sassanid Empire under Shah Khosrow I intensified.

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Imperial court of the mentally insane Justin II (seated) with Empress Sophia (left) and Tiberius II as Caesar (right), by Amelianvs

The more disappointing part however after Justinian I’s death was that his successors were not as capable as he was, and this included his nephew and immediate successor Justin II who without a clear solution but also having a weakened economy decided to stop paying tribute to the empire’s neighbors including the Sassanids which then made things only worse as seen when the Byzantines started losing a lot of lands to them. The mistake at the latter part of the 6th century however happened to be that the empire left behind by Justinian I was so large and defending so many borders proved to be so difficult that Justin II ended up turning insane that in 574 he had to abdicate passing the throne to his palace guard commander who then became Emperor Tiberius II who however proved to be a much more capable emperor than Justin II before him. Although Tiberius II was a competent emperor, he still could not solve all the empire’s problems at the same time so while he was busy continuing the war against the Sassanids in the east, the Balkans were left exposed therefore allowing the Avars and their Slav allies to invade it, while at the same time he too lacked enthusiasm in ruling.

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Maurice, Byzantine emperor (r. 582-602)

After his death in 582, Tiberius II was succeeded by his general and son-in-law Maurice who was a far more competent emperor than his two predecessors, and as emperor Maurice set a new standard for emperors to personally lead the army in battle himself, therefore he spent most of his reign campaigning against the Sassanids in the east and against the Avars and Slavs in the Balkans. Although he was a capable general, Maurice was weak in economic policy but at least he still managed to solve the problem of having provinces very distant from Constantinople which were Italy and North Africa in which he made them semi-independent provinces known as Exarchates where their own rulers somewhat ruled independently except still answering to the emperor in Constantinople. Now, what I would say makes the 6th century a very fascinating one is that it had a lot of exciting moments especially in warfare as the Byzantines at this time were fighting a variety of enemies from the powerful organized armies of the Sassanids, to the barbarian kingdoms of Western Europe, and even the nomadic people of the steppes such as the Avars, Huns, and Bulgars while at the same time they also made contact with distant lands like China, and it was also a century of great cultural innovations especially seen with the ambitious projects of the Hagia Sophia and a lot of structures around the empire including the mosaics of Ravenna in Italy. Although the 6th century had a lot of moments that I find very exciting and dramatic, not all of it was, as this century also had a lot to do with religious controversies especially between the Orthodox, Arian, and Monophysite faiths and a lot about economics as well which I don’t find very fascinating, but overall the 6th century was still one with so much happening and drama which is why I consider it as my 3rd favorite.

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World Map, 555AD, Byzantium under Justinian I (purple)
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Mosaic of Emperor Justinian I with his generals Belisarius and Narses, Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
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The Hagia Sophia, built under Justinian I
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Massacre of the 30,000 at the Hippodrome ending the Nika Riot, 532
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The Plague of Justinian hits Constantinople, 542
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The Byzantine Empire in 600 (green) and Sassanid Empire (orange)

To learn more about Byzantium in the 6th century, read Chapter III of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

4. The 13th Century          

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Map of the aftermath of the Byzantine Empire after its fall to the 4th Crusade in 1204

Despite the 13th century being the century wherein the Byzantine Empire disappeared for half of it (1204-1261), I still count it as one of my favorites for a number of reasons. The 13th century was one of if not the most turbulent time for the empire and also the beginning of its end as when the century began, the terrible 4th Crusade that was aimed at the Byzantine Empire was launched which in 1204 managed to capture Constantinople itself, thus temporarily ending Byzantine rule establishing the new Latin Empire with Constantinople as its capital.

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Seal of the Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1261)

Following the fall of Constantinople to the Latin (Western European) army of the 4th Crusade, the geography of what was once the Byzantine Empire totally changed as Constantinople and it surroundings fell under the Latin Empire, Greece fell under various Latin nobles from the west, Crete and a number of islands to the rule of the Republic of Venice, while the Byzantine people as well divided themselves once their capital fell thus creating their own separate states including the Despotate of Epirus in Western Greece, the Empire of Nicaea in Western Asia Minor, and the Empire of Trebizond along the Black Sea coast in the far eastern corner of Asia Minor. Among the 3 successor Byzantine states which were the Empires of Nicaea and Trebizond, as well as the Despotate of Epirus, it was the Empire of Nicaea that was the most successful of them, therefore it remained as the legitimate successor state of the Byzantine Empire, so basically the story of Byzantium for half of the 13th century was the story of the successor state of the Empire of Nicaea. What I find very fascinating about the 57-year period of the Byzantine Empire in exile as the Empire of Nicaea in the 13th century was that despite them being so fatally defeated that they even lost their capital to the Crusaders, the Byzantines still had it in them to rise up again and one day direct their attention to reclaim their capital. Even in its earliest days, the Empire of Nicaea under its first ruler Theodore I Laskaris from 1205 to his death in 1221 already came up with a clear plan to put the pieces back together and form a state strong enough to one day make an attempt to reclaim the old capital and doing this required a lot of hard work, alliances, and good timing.

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Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes of Nicaea/ Byzantium (r. 1222-1254)

The real success for the empire of Nicaea however came during the reign of John III Doukas Vatatzes (1222-1254), Theodore I’s successor and son-in-law and as the emperor of Nicaea, John III was able to make the exiled Byzantium as powerful as it was when the Byzantines still held Constantinople by turning the tide of war against Byzantium’s Latin occupiers as true enough the Latin Empire of Constantinople had turned out to be a failed state, also John III gave his people a time of peace and economic growth. John III in fact almost succeeded in recapturing Constantinople in 1235 with assistance from the 2nd Bulgarian Empire’s tsar Ivan Asen II but failed in doing so when mistrust erupted between them but also when seeing that they had no way to break into the walls. The rest of John III’s military campaigns were mostly successful especially against the rival Byzantine power of the Despotate of Epirus that he was able to successfully reclaim the city of Thessaloniki from them, but other than military campaigns John III invested heavily in promoting Greek culture in the exiled Byzantine Empire of Nicaea that his reign would begin what would be the Greek cultural revival of Byzantium as well as the birth of the medieval Greek identity. Though John III ruled somewhat with an iron fist, he was also a well-loved ruler and that when he died in 1254, he was mourned by almost all his subjects, though the sad part about his death was that he was not able to live long enough to see Constantinople back in Byzantine hands. John III’s son and successor Theodore II Laskaris however only ruled for 4 years (1254-1258) and was not as successful as his father, while also did not prioritize the reconquest of Constantinople, although after his sudden death in 1258 the Empire of Nicaea was taken over by the ambitious noble and Theodore II’s greatest rival Michael Palaiologos who made his message clear to everyone which was to take back Constantinople from the Latins. The Empire of Nicaea’s army was then able to successfully recover Constantinople from the Latins in 1261 by surprise when attacking at the dead night, but to their surprise, most of the Latin army was away, therefore the Latin Empire came to an end and the Byzantine Empire was restored as Constantinople was recaptured. Now, again what makes the 13th century a fascinating one for me were the stories of the two strong emperors that dominated this century which were John III Vatatzes who ruled the exiled Empire of Nicaea for a full 32 years and Michael VIII Palaiologos who finally managed to recapture Constantinople in 1261 and restore the Byzantine Empire after 57 years of disappearance, and what both rulers had in common was that they persisted and made Byzantium persist despite the challenging times.

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Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos of Byzantium (r. 1261-1282), painting by myself

As for Michael VIII, despite restoring the Byzantine Empire, he faced so many difficulties immediately after taking back Constantinople. In Michael VIII’s 21-year reign (1261-1282), the restored Byzantium was threatened on all sides by various enemies including the Turks and Mongols, as well as the still surviving Latin powers in Greece established back in 1204 following the 4th Crusade and the rival Despotate of Epirus too that still continued to pose a threat to them even if the Empire of Nicaea became the Byzantine Empire again, although the most dangerous threat to Michael VIII’s restored empire was the new ambitious French king of Sicily Charles of Anjou who took over Sicily in 1266 and from there made it his goal to launch another invasion on Byzantium with the ultimate goal to take Constantinople back from the Latins. Now what makes Michael VIII an interesting character was that he was someone that would do all it took to save his empire especially through diplomacy even if there were dirty tactics involved such as turning against his allies and paying off people to rise up in rebellion known as the “Sicilian Vespers” which was in fact how he managed to get the ultimate threat of Charles of Anjou away from him as before Michael’s death in 1282, he paid off the people of Sicily to rebel against their French overlord Charles of Anjou which then succeeded in overthrowing the French overlords who were replaced by the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon, an ally of Michael VIII. On the other hand, Michael VIII’s may have ruled with an iron fist too much with very rash decisions such as his attempts to submit Byzantium to the pope in order to be allies with the rest of Western Europe, although this created such unrest among his proud Orthodox subjects which caused Michael to lose so much of his popularity.

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Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos of Byzantium

Michael VIII however responded with such brutality to all those that opposed his policy to reunite the Byzantine Church with the Latin Catholic Church that he imprisoned and even executed many of his subjects for opposing it, but at the end his intentions were still good which was to save his empire even if this would mean taking the greatest of risks such as submitting to the more powerful Latin Church despite great opposition by his people as he believed that it would be only by joining forces with their enemy being the western world that Byzantium could be saved. Basically for me, it is just John III’s and Michael VIII’s reigns that I find fascinating about the 13th century and the rest not so, though for me, the last years of the 13th century happen to be nothing more but disappointing as Michael VIII’s son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos who ruled in the last years of the 13th century was a nothing much but a weak and incompetent emperor, although Michael VIII was in fact also to blame for leaving behind to his son such a troubled and bankrupt Byzantium, as in his reign Michael VIII had spent so much on war and bribing other powers to not attack while also by putting too much attention on the west and the Balkans, he neglected Byzantium’s borders in their heartland which was Asia Minor, therefore by the time Andronikos II came to power, he would have to face the consequences of his father’s decisions and over-spending. On the other hand, the 13th century was one of the periods in Byzantine history that I put a lot of attention to that I in fact made two major Lego films set in this era focusing on important events of the century and these films include Summer of 1261 (2019) focusing on the Byzantine reconquest of 1261 and War of the Sicilian Vespers (2020) focusing on the conflict in Sicily which the Byzantines assisted the Sicilians in overthrowing their French overlords in 1282.     

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Constantinople falls to the 4th Crusade, 1204
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Byzantine Reconquest of Constantinople from the Latins in 1261, art by FaisalHashemi
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Map of the restored Byzantine Empire in 1261 (yellow)
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Rebellion of the Sicilian Vespers, 1282

5. The 11th Century              

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The Byzantine Empire at Basil II’s death in 1025 (white) with new annexed territories by 1055 (red)

The 11th century was no doubt one of the most action-packed centuries in Byzantine Empire which saw it be at its height of power when the century began then all of a sudden drastically fall from it, therefore the Crisis of the 11th Century comes in, although this century again ends with Byzantium strong again, therefore the 11th century is the one century which shows the usual pattern of Byzantium going up then down then up again in terms of power and influence.

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Emperor Basil II the “Bulgar-Slayer” (r. 976-1025)

The 11th century began with the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II of the Macedonian Dynasty as the dominant power of Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Middle Ages and following the ultimate Byzantine conquest of the Bulgarian Empire in 1018, Byzantium and its army was feared by all that no one would dare attack Byzantium or else suffer the same fate as Bulgaria. The period of great power and influence Byzantium had held over the world however did not last long as after Basil II’s death in 1025 it would be all downhill from here despite Byzantium still being a massive empire that covered the entire Balkans going east all the way to Armenia while in the west still keeping most of Southern Italy. The downfall of Byzantium following Basil II’s death in 1025 was also due to how large the empire stretched making it already impossible to maintain a large enough army to defend all its borders although things still would have been better even if Byzantium held a large amount of territory if they had better leaders in the 11th century, but unfortunately the Byzantines did not. Most of the emperors that succeeded Basil II were weak rulers that tolerated having a corrupt court run by scheming eunuchs while a number of ambitious generals from powerful military aristocratic families many times rebelled and tried to claim the throne. Now while corruption reigned in mid-11th century Byzantium and so did economic problems that for the first time in their 700 years of history their standard gold coin or the Solidus was devalued, new and unexpected enemies came into contact with the Byzantines and these included the Normans in Italy which were just mercenaries that the Byzantines happened to underestimate as true enough it turned out they were there in Italy to stay and conquer it while in the east, a new power arose which the Byzantines never saw coming and this was the empire of the Seljuk Turks who the Byzantines first battled with in 1048 although still defeating the Seljuks.

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Seljuk Turks ride from the steppes into Asia Minor

In 1056, the long-ruling Macedonian Dynasty came to an end with the death of the last Macedonian ruler Theodora, the niece of Basil II and what followed her death was some political instability until 1057 when the strongman emperor Isaac I Komnenos came to rule the empire promising to return it to its military glory in the time of Basil II, although Isaac I’s reign ended too soon as he abdicated in 1059 due to illness leaving the throne to an unworthy successor which was Constantine X Doukas who made the worst decision ever in disbanding the eastern army to save up on funds right when the Seljuks were threatening Byzantium’s eastern borders. After Constantine X’s death in 1067, his wife Empress Eudokia married the capable general Romanos Diogenes who in 1068 became Emperor Romanos IV right when the Seljuks made constant riads into the Byzantine heartland which was Asia Minor without orders from their leader the sultan Alp Arslan. In 1071, Romanos IV tired of the Seljuks raiding the empire declared war on them even if their sultan Alp Arslan’s intention was never to really fully invade Byzantium but just take a part of it in order to gain access to conquer his ultimate goal which was Egypt.

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Defeat and capture of Romanos IV by the Seljuks, 1071

The forces of Romanos IV and Alp Arslan clashed at the fatal Battle of Manzikert in 1071 in which Romanos IV was defeated and captured although spared but when returning to Constantinople, he was betrayed as the imperial court declared him deposed therefore replacing him with his stepson Michael VII Doukas. Romanos IV was then blinded in 1072 dying shortly after although the next emperor Michael VII proved to be a very incompetent one, and due to his weak leadership, a number of ambitious generals rose up to claim the throne and with all this chaos, Norman mercenaries turned warlords created their own states in Byzantine Asia Minor itself while the Seljuks due to their victory at Manzikert freely raided and occupied lands in Byzantine Asia Minor. Michael VII eventually abdicated in 1078 and was replaced by Emperor Nikephoros III Botaneiates who was in fact much worse as due to his old age, he could not really do anything to save the empire from deteriorating that almost all of Asia Minor already fell under Seljuk rule, though in 1081 Nikephoros III was ousted from power by the much young and ambitious general Alexios Komnenos, nephew of the previous emperor Isaac I, and as emperor Alexios I promised to restore the empire to its greatness once more.

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Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118)

Alexios I began his reign fighting off a Norman invasion finally defeating it by 1085, then in 1091 he defeated a massive Pecheneg invasion. The 11th century ends with Alexios I calling for military assistance from Western Europe to help him reclaim Asia Minor from the Seljuks, but in return he got the First Crusade which was never really loyal to him, though at the end despite the Crusaders claiming for themselves lands in the Middle East, they at least pushed back the Seljuks relieving Alexios I and Byzantium from its ultimate extinction. Now, I would say that the 11th century featured so many events that were not only crucial for Byzantium but for world history in general such as the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria in 1018 and the significant defeat the Byzantine army faced at Manzikert which then turns out to be the most significant turning point of this century, as this defeat exposed that the once feared and all-powerful Byzantine army was in fact vulnerable, but this defeat that also led to the Seljuk occupation of Asia Minor more importantly led to the Crusades to become a thing which would be the major story for the next 2 centuries in world history. It is because this century had such crucial events such as the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the Great Schism before that in 1054 which finally separated Byzantium from the west culturally and spiritually that I find this century very fascinating, but also because it featured a lot of epic battles and the famous Varangian Guard consisting of Nordic mercenaries serving in Byzantium protecting its emperor. On the other hand, unlike the 10th century that preceded it, the 11th century was not all action-packed and memorable every step of the way, but instead had a number of exciting yet suspenseful moments such as of course Manzikert and a lot of other battles before it but it also had its share of disappointing moments especially its repetitive cycle of having one incompetent emperor after the other wherein one able emperor comes in between them but does not stay too long, while this century also featured a lot of economics and religious struggles again which makes it have some not so interesting parts for me. The 11th century however was one of the few centuries in Byzantine history that was action-packed from beginning to end despite a few dull and disappointing moments in between, which why I still consider it one of the more purely fascinating ones in Byzantine history but still not one of my plainly most fascinating ones.

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Empresses Zoe (left) and Theodora (right) in the palace, art by Eldr-Fire
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Painting of the fateful Battle of Manzikert between the Byzantines and Seljuks, 1071
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Map of the expansion of the Seljuk Turks and their empire (yellow), in the 11th century
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The First Crusade, 1095-1099
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Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, art by Diogos_tales

To learn more about Byzantium in the 11th century, read Chapter VIII of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

 

6. The 4th Century               

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Map of the Roman Empire under Constantine I, 330

The 4th century is considered to be the first century in the history of Byzantium as this was when Constantinople was founded as the Roman Empire’s new capital by the Roman emperor Constantine I the Great, however the real history of the Eastern Roman Empire being the Byzantine Empire only begins in 395 where the 4th century ends, therefore the rest of the 4th century more or less is just the introduction period to the actual main body of Byzantine history that fully begins in the 5th century following it. Although since the 4th century still counts as part of Byzantine history basically because this was when Constantinople was founded and had become the new capital of the Roman Empire, I am putting it on this list. Now the 4th century as I would say was more or less a very eventful one filled with exciting, action-packed, and even dramatic moments which then makes it for me a very fascinating one, although I am only placing it on #6 of this list because as I mentioned earlier it is not really part of the main history of Byzantium and therefore still more or less part of the history of the original Roman Empire before Byzantium, but also because for some reason the history of the 4th century has many gaps as it is only the important events here that are mostly recorded, therefore I cannot appreciate it as much as the other centuries. From beginning to end, the 4th century had a lot of significant moments as when the century began, the Roman Empire was still under the experiment known as the Tetrarchy with 4 divided parts ruled by 4 different emperors which seemed to do well until 305 when this system’s founder Emperor Diocletian retired, therefore creating chaos leading into civil war as a result of the other rulers of this system wanting more land and power.

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Roman emperor Constantine I the Great (r. 306-337), founder of Constantinople

The empire was then thrown into chaos until one of the rulers of the Tetrarchy which was the western emperor Constantine I defeated all his rivals over the span of 18 years (306-324), and by 324 after fighting an on-and-off civil war against all his imperial rivals in the western and eastern portions of the empire, he became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire deciding to turn the backwater port town of Byzantium along the Bosporus Sea between Asia and Europe as the Roman Empire’s new capital seeing it as a strategic location, and in only 6 years the small port town was transformed into an imperial capital which was inaugurated in 330. Constantine I known as “the Great” of course had made a lot more of achievements than founding Constantinople and therefore the Byzantine Empire and restructuring the Roman army, and a lot of his major achievements had to do with making Christianity the dominant but not official religion of the Roman Empire as in 313 he issued the Edict of Milan that finally gave toleration to Christians after centuries of persecution, then in 325 Constantine I organized the First Church Council at Nicaea that formally set the official doctrine for Christianity and condemned the teachings of Arianism as heresy, though it was only shortly before his death 337 that Constantine I was baptized as a Christian.

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Council of Nicaea, 325

Although Constantine I ruled the entire Roman Empire alone, after his death the empire was divided among his 3 sons that were basically all at odds with each other and at the end, only the middle son Constantius II ruling from Constantinople survived his two brothers therefore ruling the whole empire alone until his death in 361 and without any son to succeed him, Constantius II passed the throne to his younger cousin Julian despite not trusting him. Julian’s 2-year reign (361-363) was one of the most interesting moments of the 4th century as he was the last Roman emperor willing to return to the glory days of Ancient Pagan Rome that he in fact was a Pagan himself although he did not rule long enough to achieve his goal to return the empire to its glory days of the past as in 363, he was killed in battle against the Sassanid Persian Empire while campaigning in the Sassanid heartland itself.

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Emperor Julian (r. 361-363), art by Amelianvs

The Roman army however survived and returned to empire and in 364, a new emperor came to power establishing a new dynasty which was the soldier Valentinian I who when coming to power split the empire in half with him ruling the western half and his younger brother Valens ruling the eastern half from Constantinople. Valentinian I the Great ruled successfully managing to defeat a number of barbarian tribes invading the western half but in 375 he died from a burst blood vessel caused by his own anger while failing to negotiate with barbarian tribal leaders at the empire’s Danube border. Meanwhile, the eastern half of the Roman Empire ruled by Valens, a sudden massive migration of barbarian Goths poured into the eastern half’s Danube border in 376 which later proved to be too uncontrollable by Roman authorities in the Balkans leading to war against the Goths resulting in the Roman army defeated by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 wherein Valens himself was killed. The death of Valens and the victory of the Goths put the eastern half of the empire into chaos without any emperor sitting in Constantinople until the next year came when the general Theodosius came to power as the Eastern Roman emperor and in his reign, he focused on containing the pillaging Goths which he succeeded in except that he was only able to take care of the problem only by allowing the Goths to settle within the empire as Foederati or defeated soldiers forced to serve their conquerors in exchange for being kept alive.

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Emperor Theodosius I the Great (r. 379-395)

As emperor, Theodosius I known as “the Great” being a devout Christian prioritized making Christianity the empire’s dominant religion and true enough in 380 he declared Nicene Christianity which was established back in 325 as the official religion of the Roman Empire and began persecuting those who opposed it. Theodosius I too had dealt with two large civil wars in his reign in which he managed to defeat both and after defeating the second one in 394, he became once more the sole ruler of the whole Roman empire except only for a few months as in early 395 he died permanently dividing the empire in half leaving his older son Arcadius to rule the eastern half which was the Byzantine Empire and the younger son Honorius to rule the western half. Now, the 4th century more or less was full of exciting and memorable moments in different fields especially in warfare as it featured important and climactic battles whether in Roman civil wars such as the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 and Frigidus in 394 or in battles against barbarians such as Strasbourg in 357 and Adrianople in 378 while at the same time, it was a very crucial period especially for the history of Christianity as this was when it first became both a dominant faith and an official state religion. Although, the 4th century had a lot of important and exciting moments, it was only known for major moments and nothing much in between which is why I place it as #6 on this list which is in fact not very low, but even though this century may just be one notable for important events, it was still a very crucial one in world history as it saw the transition of what was Classical Ancient Rome into the Byzantine era as well as the era of Christendom, therefore I would say that this century would be most fascinating to Roman history enthusiasts, especially if they want to be introduced to Ancient Rome’s continuation which is Byzantium.

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Constantinople, Eastern Roman Imperial capital, founded in 330
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Constantine I civil war victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge, 312
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The Roman Empire divided among Constantine I’s sons Constantine II, Constans I, and Constantius II following Constantine I’s death, 337
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Emperor Valentinian I (r. 364-375, center) with his Palatini legions, art by Amelianvs
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Defeat of the Romans to the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople, 378
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The Roman Empire divided between east (purple) given to Arcadius and west (red) given to Honorius at Theodosius I’s death in 395
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Map of all Barbarian invasions into the Roman Empire, 100-500AD

To learn more about Byzantium in the 4th century, read Chapter I of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

7. The 12th Century         

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Map of the Byzantine Empire (red) during the reign of Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180)

The 12th century is often remembered as the century of the Crusades wherein Byzantium did in fact play a major role in it, as true enough before the century began the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Western Europe to help him drive away the Seljuk Turk occupiers from the Byzantine heartland Asia Minor but in return what he got was the First Crusade.

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Coat of Arms of Byzantium under the Komnenos Dynasty

The Crusader army that came to aid Byzantium may have not kept their word in returning the lands they conquered to Byzantium and instead claimed these lands as their own but in return the Byzantines simply allow this to pass, therefore the 12th century was another period of Byzantium’s revival while also a challenging time as the empire had to battle different enemies on sides such as the Crusaders, Seljuks, Normans, and Hungarians. Most of the 12th century was then defined by what was the “Komnenian Restoration” which was a period of the Byzantine Empire’s revival in military and cultural power after it had lost most of it in the previous century due to the 11th century crisis and the catastrophic Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and most of the efforts to restore the empire to the old glory it had during the late 10th century and early 11th century were due to the reigns of 3 consecutive long-reigning strong visionary emperors in a straight line of succession which were Alexios I (1081-1118), his son John II (1118-1143), and his son Manuel I (1143-1180). These 3 Komnenos emperors may have had a strong vision to restore the empire, although their policies to revive the empire’s glory were a bit too ambitious, required so much funds, but also involved bullying other nations to submit to the authority of Byzantium as was seen with the new Crusader states in which these emperors demanded a lot from them including forcing them to pay tribute and to recognize Byzantium as their overlords, while the same thing too can be said to how the Komnenos emperors acted towards the Kingdom of Hungary. In the Byzantine Empire itself, the 3 long-reigning Komnenos emperors did in fact do a lot to restore the invincible power of the Byzantine army, strengthen the economy, and reclaim most of Asia Minor which was in the previous century lost to the Seljuks.

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Emperor John II Komnenos of Byzantium (r. 1118-1143)

Alexios I’s son and successor John II mostly spent his 25-year reign away from the capital in military campaigns against Hungary in the Balkans and the Seljuks in Asia Minor, although his reign also saw the new age of revival for the empire take shape. John II’s son Manuel I meanwhile did the same ambitious projects as his father and grandfather did before him, except that he was far more ambitious that his constant wars throughout his 37-year reign drained the empire’s funds. Manuel I just like Justinian I in the 6th century put all his attention to restoring the empire and again reconquering the west which they have lost which in his reign was seen with his attempt to reconquer Italy which however failed.

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Emperor Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantium (r. 1143-1180)

Manuel I’s over ambitious campaigns and spending would also later on cause the downfall of the empire and therefore the end of the Komnenian restoration and part of the reasons that caused the downfall of his dynasty and of the empire was his decision to have war with their ally Venice which then only made Byzantium and Venice bitter enemies for the next centuries to come, while at the same time Manuel I was also too fascinated with the culture of Western Europe that he even tried introducing it to Byzantine society which at the end did not work out well, therefore only causing division among his people. The most disappointing part however was that in 1176, the Byzantines again suffered a heavy defeat to the Seljuk army in Asia Minor therefore ending this age of restoration, thus Manuel I in 1180 died without seeing his dreams achieved but the worst part that was to come was that his son and successor Alexios II was only a child therefore under the regency of his mother Empress Maria of Antioch who was unpopular due to her western heritage that her regency caused internal conflict in the empire which resulted in the empress and her son the emperor overthrown and executed by Manuel I’s anti-western cousin who became Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos.

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Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos of Byzantium (r. 1183-1185), art by Skamandros

The new emperor Andronikos I turned out to be nothing but a bloody and paranoid ruler that just ruled out revenge executing, torturing, and exiling everyone who was associated with the previous regime of his cousin Manuel I who he hated, but at the end Andronikos I too had met a bloody end in 1185 being tortured to death by the people that put him in power 3 years earlier as they switched their support to his relative, the young charismatic politician Isaac Angelos who then became emperor following this revolution. The new emperor Isaac II Angelos however was not what his people expected as rather than being the strong ruler promising to save the empire from collapse, he was one ruler that again faced so many difficulties on all sides especially usurping generals that questioned his legitimacy as they too saw he was unfit.

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Emperor Isaac II Angelos of Byzantium (r. 1185-1195/ 1203-1204)

Isaac II however still had still managed to drive off a large Norman invasion of Byzantine Greece in 1185 but unfortunately this was only one of his few successes as the rest of his reign was filled with disaster and some of it caused by his own inept policies such as the Bulgarian uprising of 1185 that led to the breaking away of Bulgaria from Byzantium once again thus creating the 2nd Bulgarian Empire which was mostly due to Isaac II’s heavy taxation allegedly to pay for his lavish wedding ceremony while he too dealt with the arrival of the 3rd Crusade in Byzantium terribly by being skeptical about letting them through which at the end did not solve anything but instead only led to conflict with the Crusaders. Isaac II however at least knew he was responsible for creating such trouble including the Bulgarians’ declaration of independence that Isaac II in fact made many attempts to take back Bulgaria with force which however failed many times, but when finally launching a massive invasion to finally reclaim Bulgaria in 1195, Isaac II unfortunately did not succeed as he was overthrown and blinded by his jealous older brother who then became the next emperor Alexios III Angelos who proved to be even more incompetent than his brother, thus putting Byzantium down a path that will lead to its temporary collapse in 1204 when Constantinople was captured by the Crusaders. Now, I would say that the 12th century was in fact a very eventful and exciting one though I still do not consider it as one of my top picks as for me it is really a mixed century with equally fascinating but also equally disappointing moments. The part I find interesting and worth talking about for the 12th century is definitely the earlier part of it with the empire undergoing a time of restoration under the rules of the 3 ambitious and competent Komnenos emperors Alexios I, John II, and Manuel I, while the second half for me is nothing more but disappointing especially to see all the greatness of the empire fade away through a series of incompetent rulers including Andronikos I, Isaac II, and Alexios III. It is basically for the reason that this century that was supposed to be defined by the age of the restoration of Byzantium’s imperial glory ended so disappointingly why I don’t count this century as one of my favorites, but since it was one that had a lot of excitement including battles, political intrigues, and most importantly more significant contact made between Byzantium and the western world mostly because of the Crusades, this century is still something that fascinates me a lot when talking about the entire history of Byzantium in general.

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Byzantine defeat to the Seljuks at the Battle of Myriokephalon, 1176
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Isaac II Angelos’ rise to power, 1185

8. The 15th Century          

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Map of the reduced Byzantine Empire in 1450 (purple)

The 15th century being the last century of the Byzantine Empire’s existence is best defined by one event which was the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 with the epic siege of Constantinople, so basically the 15th century story of Byzantium was only half a century as in the second half of it, the Byzantine Empire was already gone. Now, I would say that the 15th century was very exciting and eventful in different parts of the world as by this point the kingdoms of Europe were already much more powerful than they were in the past centuries but for Byzantium it was the other way around as instead of the major power it was when the rest of Europe was still forming, Byzantium was now the one weak and reduced and by the time the 15th century began, Byzantium was basically just Constantinople and its surroundings as well as a few Aegean islands and the region of Southeast Greece known as the Morea.

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Flag of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century

In the region of where the Byzantine Empire was however, the main story was no longer Byzantium but the rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe that already sent shockwaves to the kingdoms of Western Europe to fight them back considering that the Ottomans from being a small power just a century ago was able to defeat and conquer both Serbian and Bulgarian Empires. The reduced and dying Byzantine Empire meanwhile in the 15th century was just a backwater state entirely surrounded by the Ottomans that it was only going to be a matter of time that the capital Constantinople itself would be captured by the Ottomans therefore finishing off Byzantium for good.

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Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos (r. 1391-1425) with his family

Fortunately the last emperors that ruled Byzantium in the 15th century which were Manuel II Palaiologos (1391-1425) and his son John VIII Palaiologos (1425-1448) were competent rulers that still managed to keep the Ottomans away and still keep their dying empire alive and a lot of their success in keeping Byzantium alive despite being surrounded by the Ottomans was through diplomacy and true enough both Manuel II and John VIII made several trips to Europe asking for financial aid and alliances from various rulers there. John VIII in 1448 however died without any sons to succeed him and so it was his younger brother that succeeded him as Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos in 1449 who was then the last Byzantine emperor.

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Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos (r. 1449-1453), the last Byzantine emperor

In 1451, just 2 years after Constantine XI came to power, the young Mehmed II came to power as the Ottoman Empire’s sultan and he had the ultimate goal to begin his reign by conquering Constantinople to get it out of the way in order to push through with the complete Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. In 1453, Mehmed II thought of asking Constantine XI to simply surrender Constantinople to him without a fight so that the Ottomans could already take their ultimate prize in exchange for Constantine XI to be spared, but Constantine XI not wanting to shamefully surrender his city refused and so the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople which lasted for 2 months. The Byzantines and their western allies defending the walls however fought bravely and resisted for 2 months strait but at the end they proved to be outnumbered and the Ottomans having more advanced weapons such as cannons were finally able to break through the 1,000-year-old walls of Constantinople for the first time and on May 29 of 1453, the last Byzantine emperor vanished in battle while the victorious Ottomans took over Constantinople making it their empire’s new capital, thus ending the 1,123-year history of Byzantium.

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Ottoman sultan Mehmed II captures Constantinople, 1453

On the other hand, Byzantine history did not yet fully end in 1453 as the other parts of the empire still under Byzantine hands resisted but in 1460 Mehmed II was able to capture the last Byzantine holding in Greece which was the Morea held by Constantine XI’s brothers and in 1461 Mehmed II too conquered the last remaining Byzantine break-away state which was the Empire of Trebizond founded back in 1204 in the eastern edge of Asia Minor along the Black Sea, thus this event in 1461 marked the final end of the Byzantine story. Now I would say that the 15th century was a very action-packed one with all the battles with the Ottomans but also a very tragic one considering it was the end of Byzantium and true enough the siege and fall of Constantinople was no doubt this century’s biggest story and one of my all-time favorite moments in Byzantine history as it showed the Byzantine Empire not ending quietly but with a bang. However, it is only the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 that I consider the only major highlight of the century while the rest of the events were not as memorable for me especially seeing how the Byzantine Empire grew to be so insignificant, therefore with nothing else but 1453 being its major highlight, I would not consider the 15th century or more specifically the last century of Byzantium as one of my top picks when ranking all 12 centuries in Byzantine history.

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1453, the final siege of Constantinople
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Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans, May 29, 1453

9. The 9th Century           

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Byzantine Empire in the 2nd half of the 9th century (yellow)

If I there was one century in Byzantine history that may have had a lot of important as well as exciting moments but with equally dull and uninteresting moments, it is the 9th century. First of all, I would say the 9th century had a lot of important moments and highlights worth remembering and a lot of them involved Byzantium’s interactions with the rest of the world around them such as the proposed marriage between Byzantium’s empress Irene and the newly crowned Frankish emperor of the west Charlemagne in 802 which never happened, the crushing defeat the Byzantines suffered to their northern neighbor the Bulgarian Empire in 811 at the Battle of Pliska wherein the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I himself was killed in, the Bulgarian war that followed, the fall of Byzantine Crete and Sicily to the Arabs, continued wars against the Arab Abbasid Caliphate, the first attacks of the Kievan Rus on Byzantium, and the beginnings of the Byzantine Renaissance as well as its cultural and military revival at the latter part of the century. The first half of the 9th century basically saw Byzantium at a low point still in its Dark Ages having to defend itself both against the Arabs in the east and the Bulgarians in the north while within the empire the controversy of Iconoclasm or the breaking of religious icons still lived on.

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Emperor Theophilos, Byzantine emperor (r. 829-842)

It is only as the 9th century progresses when the Byzantine story gets more interesting which is when Michael II becomes emperor in 820 after assassinating his predecessor Leo V thus founding the Amorian Dynasty, while in the reign of his son and successor Theophilos (829-842) the Byzantine cultural Renaissance was already taking shape and despite losing heavily to the invading Arabs in battle, Theophilos invested a lot of money into making Constantinople a cultural and educational center. Things then get even more action-packed in the latter part of the century under Theophilos’ son and successor Michael III (842-867) and even though he was ineffective as an emperor, a lot had happened in his rule such as the final end of the Iconoclast controversy in 843, the mission of St. Cyril and St. Methodius to convert the people of Eastern Europe to Orthodox Christianity which was organized by the Patriarch of Constantinople Photios I, the Kievan Rus’ first attack on Byzantine territory in 860, the conversion of Bulgaria to Orthodoxy, and the rise to power of the unlikely peasant and wrestler Basil the Macedonian who after becoming close to Michael III killed him in 867 and became the new emperor Basil I establishing the long-lived Macedonian Dynasty that survived until the 11th century.

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Emperor Basil I the Macedonian (r. 867-886)

The reign of Basil I (867-886) saw Byzantium once again rise up to become a strong military power as well as a cultural one, therefore laying the foundations for the actual Byzantine golden age in the following century. Now the reason why I am putting the 9th century far down on this list ranking the 12 centuries of Byzantium compared to the 10th century that followed it which is my personal best being #1 on this list is because the 9th century compared to the 10th that followed was definitely not action-packed every step of the way but it had a lot of exciting and memorable moments too. These memorable moments though that the 9th century had to offer mostly had to do with its relations with other powers such as the Bulgarians, Rus, Arabs, and the west and true enough a lot of important moments took place in this century that are worth telling regarded Byzantium’s foreign relations and these included the mission of St. Cyril and Methodius which has a more intriguing angle to it as their mission was not plainly one for spirituality but politics as this was a cold war situation wherein Byzantium competed against the Western Catholic Church to see who would convert the still Pagan people of Eastern Europe first, and at the end the Byzantines won it.

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Sts. Cyril (left) with the Cyrillic Alphabet and St. Methodius (right), Byzantine missionaries sent to convert the Slavs by Patriarch Photios

The battles against the Bulgarians were exciting moments as well as already at the beginning of the century Byzantium was already engaged in war with them while the century also ended with Byzantium again at war with Bulgaria in which Bulgaria was much more powerful under its greatest ruler Tsar Simeon, while also the conflicts between Byzantium and the Arabs had a lot more excitement here as it was in this century when the Byzantines first turned the tide of war against the Arabs to the offensive when for the first time the Byzantine army in the 860s did not just fight to defend its borders from Arab raiders but in fact raided deep into Arab territory. On the other hand, it is only in the external situation that makes the 9th century exciting for me as internally, the Byzantine story was not very much exciting as a lot of the stories here had to do with complicated court politics and religious issues, although the internal issues of this century only gets more exciting in the latter part of century such as Basil I’s rise to power and the questionable parentage of his son the future emperor Leo VI who came to power in 886 as it is still debated whether he is actually Basil I’s son or the previous emperor Michael III’s. For me, the 9th century had more not so exciting if not dull moments compared to its more exciting and dramatic moments which is why I do not consider it as one of my favorite centuries, but other than that I still find the 9th century a period that has a lot of interest for me as the 9th century set the stage for the Byzantine Renaissance including its military and cultural golden age that took place in the following century which is my all-time favorite of the 12 centuries in Byzantine history.

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Aftermath of the Battle of Pliska in 811, Khan Krum of Bulgaria uses Emperor Nikephoros I’s skull as his drinking cup
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Michael III (right, in blue) makes Basil the Macedonian (left, in red) his co-emperor, Madrid Skylitzes

To learn more about Byzantium in the 9th century, read Chapter VI of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

10. The 7th Century          

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The Byzantine Empire in 650 (orange) under Constans II

The 7th century was definitely a major turning point for the Byzantine Empire as this was the end of the old Roman era and the beginning of their Dark Ages, and a lot of this had to do with the final defeat of their traditional eastern enemy the Sassanid Persian Empire and the unexpected rise of a new power which were the Arabs that in such a quick amount of time took over the entire Middle East as well as half of the Byzantine Empire’s territory. The 7th century is often described as a dark time for Byzantium and was already dark right when this century began when in 602 the emperor Maurice was executed by the usurper Phocas thus ending the great Justinian Dynasty and the age of Antiquity in general and beginning what would be the Dark Ages. The execution of Maurice and Phocas seizing the throne led to war breaking out with the Sassanid Empire in the east as its ruler or shah Khosrow II was an ally of Maurice although he also had the ambition to invade Byzantium and using the execution of Maurice as an excuse, Khosrow II declared war on the Byzantines.

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Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641), art by Skamandros

Phocas however was overthrown and executed by Heraclius in 610 who became the emperor and as emperor he turned all his attention to fighting off the Sassanids and finishing them off for good whereas the Sassanids too had gained the upper hand and invaded a large percent of Byzantine territory including Syria, Egypt, and even laying siege to Constantinople in 626 with the help of the Avars and Slavs who at the same time were also invading the Byzantine Balkans. Heraclius at the end managed to defeat the Sassanids in 628 and reclaim all Byzantine territories lost to them but despite his victory, a large percent of the army was destroyed and the imperial treasury emptied out from the war, therefore meaning that another war would mean the end of Byzantium. True enough, just right after the war with the Sassanids came to an end, just some years later a new unexpected power arose and expanded with such speed with nothing to stop it, and these were the Arabs in the form of their first empire which was the Rashidun Caliphate and their invincibility was already shown when defeating the Byzantine army at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 and defeating the Sassanids too that same year. Following the ultimate defeat of the weakened Byzantine army to the Arabs in 636, the Byzantines in the next few years lost all of their territories in the Middle East including the important cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, thus Heraclius died in 641 seeing everything he restored to the empire fall apart due to the Arab conquests.

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Emperor Constans II of Byzantium (r. 641-668), art by myself

Heraclius’ reign was followed by that of his grandson Constans II (641-668) who in his reign saw all of Egypt fully fall to the control of the Arabs as well as the first Arab naval attacks and raids deep into imperial territory in the east. Though coming to power only as a minor, Constans II would later on prove to be a decisive ruler that held the empire together in such a challenging time and he had also created the new Thematic System or Themes thus restructuring the old Byzantine provinces into smaller ones run by the army in order to strengthen its defenses against the constantly raiding Arabs. Constans II although saw that Constantinople was in a dangerous position as it was vulnerable to the naval attacks of the Arabs and so he decided that the capital should be moved to Syracuse in Sicily where he even set himself up from 663 to 668 thinking that if the east would fall, he could rebuild Byzantium in the west but his plans never came to happen as he was assassinated in his bath in Syracuse in 668. Following Constans II’s death, he was succeeded by his son Constantine IV who despite being still young was a successful ruler and from 674 to 678 successfully defended Constantinople from its first siege by the Arab armies with the use of the new superweapon of Greek Fire.

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Emperor Constantine IV (r. 668-685), son and successor of Constans II

It also happened in the late 7th century in 680 wherein the Bulgarians first appeared and settled in Byzantine lands forming their state and Constantine IV despite his success against the Arabs failed to contain the Bulgar raiders. Following Constantine IV’s death in 685 he was succeeded by his son Justinian II who although had the intention to revive the old glory of Byzantium and defeat all its enemies was too ambitious that his constant fighting off wars led to empire being further weakened while he too had a very oppressive ruling style which led to his downfall in 695 where he was overthrown by the senate, army, and people wherein his nose was cut off and therefore sent into exile afterwards. The 7th century then ended terribly for the Byzantines as the overthrow of Justinian II in 695 threw the empire into anarchy which would see a change of emperor 7 times in the course of 22 years and in this time, the Byzantines too suffered the great loss of losing their last territory in North Africa which was Carthage to the Arabs in 698.

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Emperor Justinian II (r. 685-695/ 705-711), art by Amelianvs

Now, it is no doubt that the 7th century was a very crucial turning point in Byzantine history considering the fall of its old enemy being the Sassanids and the rise of a new one which were the Arabs, the creation of the Thematic System, the invention of Greek Fire, and countless wars everywhere which makes it a very eventful and exciting one. The 7th century for me no doubt had a lot of exciting moments worth remembering and a lot of it had to do with wars such as the full-scale Byzantine-Sassanid War from 602 to 628, the conflict with the Arabs, and the sieges of Constantinople first in 626 by the Sassanids with their Avar and Slav allies and from 674 to 678 by the Arabs, therefore this century is something that would interest war enthusiasts. At the same time, the rulers of this century which was mainly the Heraclian Dynasty being the emperors Heraclius (610-641), Constans II (641-668), Constantine IV (668-685), and Justinian II (685-695) were very interesting and colorful characters as well. The downside of this century however was that everything usually seemed so one-sided which was mostly because it had so much wars from beginning to end that the history of this century would in fact go from exciting to becoming already too tiring and repetitive in story. What makes this century less interesting too aside from that it did not have much to tell except wars, and if not wars its other stories had a lot to do with abstract religious debates such as the controversial new Monothelite doctrine that Heraclius and Constans II supported but was finally declared a heresy by Constantine IV. What makes the 7th century a bit too one dimensional as well was that there were no other interesting characters except for its emperors who were all strong military men, therefore no other interesting stories such as cultural innovations and ambitious women except for Heraclius’ wife Empress Martina who however only had a very brief role in this century at the time of Heraclius’ death in 641. If not for the exciting battles and new inventions like Greek Fire and Thematic System, the 7th century story of Byzantium is more or less disappointing considering how much territory they had lost including half of it which fell to the Arabs, most of the Balkans which fell to the Avars and Slavs and later on the Bulgarians, most of Italy to the Lombards, and all of Byzantine Southern Spain to the Visigoth Kingdom. Despite all the disappointing moments and one-dimensional kind of story that defined the 7th century, I still find it fascinating as it was a major turning point in their history but I would consider it as one of my least favorites for the reason that it did not have much stories to tell except of warfare.

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Greatest extent of the Sassanid Empire (orange) under Khosrow II, by 622
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Defeat of the Byzantine forces (left) to the Arabs (right) at the Battle of Yarmouk, 636
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Byzantine and Arab fleets clash with each other at the Battle of the Masts, 655
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Greek Fire used for the first time at the 674-678 Arab Siege of Constantinople

To learn more about Byzantium in the 7th century, read Chapter IV of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

11. The 14th Century

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Byzantium in 1350 (blue)

The 14th century which is the 2nd to the last century of Byzantium’s existence was no doubt one of its most disappointing ones especially considering how reduced and weakened the Byzantine Empire became due to the damage of the 4th Crusade in the previous century and even though the empire was restored in 1261 by Michael VIII Palaiologos, it was already too late for Byzantium to become a world power again. The 14th century is often the overlooked century in Byzantine history which many history books only make a very quick mention of or if not do mention the century as if it did not exist and true enough it is overlooked for many reasons, thus making this century be known as the “forgotten century”.

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Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos of Byzantium (r. 1282-1328)

First of all, the 14th century already began terribly for Byzantium as during the reign of Andronikos II Palaiologos when the century began, the empire was close to bankruptcy due to the great amounts of money his father Michael VIII spent in his reign (1261-1282), therefore without much funds the army had to be disbanded but it had happened in such a bad time as a new enemy rose up in Asia Minor which were the Ottomans that may have started out only as a small power in Asia Minor but after winning a number of victories in Asia Minor, they soon enough kept expanding. The reign of Andronikos II was also a very disastrous one due to a major mistake of hiring an unruly band of Catalan mercenaries in 1302 to strike back at the Ottomans which only ended in failure when the Catalans turned on the Byzantines due to lack of pay and as a result of it pillaged Byzantine lands in Thrace and Macedonia burning it to the point of turning it into a desert. The incompetence of Andronikos II’s rule would lead to his downfall as in 1321 his grandson also named Andronikos rose up in rebellion and in 1328 succeeded in overthrowing his grandfather following a 7-year civil war.

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Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos of Byzantium (r. 1328-1341)

In his reign, the new emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos (1328-1341) vowed to revive the Byzantine Empire and make it at least a significant power in the Balkan region again and so he spent most of his reign in military campaigns which however had mixed results as most of Greece including the rebel Byzantine states of Epirus and Thessaly were returned to Byzantium through Andronikos III’s conquests although he failed when battling the new power of the Ottomans in Asia Minor, thus proving that the Ottomans were now growing far too powerful. Andronikos III at least succeeded in making Byzantium a power in the Balkans but he died too soon in 1341 before seeing his dreams fully achieved, therefore it would be all downhill after his death. The following years after 1341 would be the worst for Byzantium as Andronikos III’s lack of a succession plan led to a civil war between the faction of his young son Emperor John V Palaiologos led by his mother the empress Anna of Savoy who was the late emperor’s wife and Andronikos III’s closest friend and advisor the general John Kantakouzenos.

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Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos of Byzantium (r. 1347-1354)

The civil war ended in 1347 with John Kantakouzenos victorious therefore being crowned as Emperor John VI but this civil war was nothing more but devastating that it totally bankrupted the empire while both sides getting foreign alliances only allowed these foreign powers to take over land such as the Serbian Kingdom of King Stefan IV Dusan which as a result of the civil war took over most of Byzantine Greece and became the Serbian Empire while the Ottomans that backed John VI here finally gained their first territories in Europe as a reward for helping John VI win the war. The other tragedy that further struck Byzantium too was the plague of Black Death in 1347 which further weakened the empire and its economy. The rest of the century too featured more civil wars such as the one in 1354 wherein John V came back to power overthrowing John VI and later on in John V’s reign again, he had to fight a civil war against his son Emperor Andronikos IV in 1373.

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Emperor John V Palaiologos of Byzantium (r. 1341-1391)

A large part of the 14th century saw Byzantium under the rule of John V Palaiologos from 1341 to his death in 1391 but with many gaps between his reign as he was removed from power 3 times and although he was not blind to the difficulties his empire was facing, he was ineffective in solving them. The 14th century then ended with the Byzantine Empire reduced only to Constantinople and its surroundings which were all surrounded by the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire while other the Byzantine territories they still held such as Thessaloniki, the Morea in Southeast Greece, and the Aegean islands were disconnected by land to the capital. Now the Byzantine story of the 14th century is nothing more but disappointing as the more exciting stories of this century had to do more with the other powers that Byzantium either allied with at this time or fought against such as the Ottoman, Serbian, and 2nd Bulgarian Empires, and the Italian naval republics of Venice and Genoa. The 14th century is definitely more or less the story of the Ottomans as it saw the Ottomans go from a small state at the Byzantine border in Asia Minor to an empire that had both Europe and Asia, yet by the end of the 14th century the Ottomans had in fact crushed both the Serbian and Bulgarian Empires that were just previously this century’s dominant powers.

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Seal of the Palaiologos Dynasty of the Byzantine Empire

When it comes to the Byzantines’ story in the 14th century during its twilight years, it nothing more but disappointing seeing all the wealth and luxury that once defined Byzantium all disappear while its stories feature a lot of defeats and disasters as well as internal conflicts, and although stories of civil wars, political intrigues, blinding, poisoning, and scandals make Byzantine history interesting, this is not the case for the 14th century as here all these mentioned incidents happen to often that it already becomes too tiring to hear, therefore making this century’s story less memorable. On the other hand, having interesting characters such as Andronikos III, Anna of Savoy, John Kantakouzenos, as well as the Serbian king turned emperor Stefan IV Dusan and the Ottoman sultan Orhan give a bit of excitement to the century but other than that, I would say this century is not a very memorable one which is why I am ranking it very low in this list. Additionally, this century has a lot of importance especially in studying what led to the fall of Constantinople and ultimate end of Byzantium in 1453 as this century was really the story of the Ottoman Empire’s rise, therefore I would say that this century telling the story of how Byzantium’s end came to be adds some interesting element.

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Byzantine art recreated- Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos (r. 1328-1341) and his wife Empress Anna of Savoy (art by Powee Celdran)
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Stefan IV Dusan, Emperor of Serbia (r. 1346-1355), previously King of Serbia
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Map of the spread of Black Death (1347-1351)
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Ottomans defeat the Serbians at the Battle of Kosovo, 1389

12. The 8th Century           

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The Byzantine Empire in 717 (purple)

Last on this list of ranking the 12 centuries of Byzantine history from my personal best to worst is the 8th century which is no doubt the least interesting century in Byzantine history for me and it is for a lot of reasons. First of all, the 8th century lacked a lot of sources describing the century as well as the reigns of its emperors in detail while most of the sources of this century are one-sided ones that portray most of its emperors as bloodthirsty monsters, therefore it seems to be hard to appreciate this century’s story. The 8th century already begins with Byzantium in a state of anarchy in which I mentioned earlier had a change of emperor 7 times in 22 years and part of this anarchy period from 705 to 711 was the second reign of the deposed Justinian II who ruled his second reign only to have revenge on those who overthrew him before that his reign ended up just becoming a gore fest in which he himself was executed at the end of it in 711. The worst part about this time of anarchy was that the Arabs now in the form of the Umayyad Caliphate used the chaos in Byzantium to their advantage to launch a massive invasion on Constantinople itself.

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Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, aka Konon (r. 717-741)

In 717, the anarchy period ended when the general Konon came to power as Emperor Leo III and here he successfully defended Constantinople from the Arabs afterwards he restored order by creating his own dynasty. Leo III may have been a successful emperor in battle but his policies turned out to be disastrous for Byzantium and this was specifically Iconoclasm or the declaration to destroy religious icons which he thought would save the empire from its setbacks but at the end only created division among his people and even worse, the first schism with the west which led to the separation between the Byzantine Orthodox Church and Latin Catholic Church. This major controversy of Iconoclasm true enough even led to civil wars in Byzantium such as the one following Leo III’s death in 741 which was between Leo III’s son and successor Constantine V who strongly stood for Iconoclasm and his general Artavasdos who was against it, in which Constantine V was victorious at the end of it in 743 thus blinding Artavasdos.

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Byzantine Iconoclasm under Leo III from the 9th century Chludov Psalter

Constantine V in his long reign (743-775) strongly enforced Iconoclasm in the empire believing it will save the empire from falling apart, though at the same time he was a very popular emperor for winning many battles against both enemies of the empire which were the Arabs in the east and Bulgarians in the north. By the time of his death in 775, Constantine V left the empire much stronger than his father founded in 717 while Constantine V too had the legacy of reforming the army and the Thematic System, however his son and successor Leo IV did not really prove to be effective as he only ruled for 5 years until his death in 780. The 8th century gets only more eventful after 780 when the empire was under the regency of Leo IV’s wife Empress Irene ruling for their young son Constantine VI as at this time Iconoclasm comes to its end in 787 and 10 years later in 797 Irene comes out victorious in the conflict against her son who she blinds here, therefore making her the first woman to rule Byzantium alone.

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2nd Council of Nicaea and the end of Iconoclasm in 787, Irene and Constantine VI leading it

Now what I find very one-sided and uninteresting about the 8th century was that most of it was just seen as Byzantium only fighting to defend itself against the Arabs in the east and Bulgarians in the north while everything else just included internal struggles including civil wars, court intrigue, and of course Iconoclasm which was just nothing but a useless and divisive policy that went on for so long without resulting in anything good except for countless of tortures, blinding, exiling, and destruction of valuable art. On the other hand, the 8th century for me still had a few exciting and memorable moments such as the full-scale Arab siege of Constantinople from 717 to 718 wherein the Byzantines managed to defeat the Arabs with the use of Greek Fire, as well as through some help from the Bulgarians in the north, and a brutal winter that destroyed the Arab army as winter was alien to them while the other only exciting part of the 8th century was Irene’s reign as regent and later as sole empress at the end of the century and nothing more. Now if not for these two moments I find memorable about the 8th century, the rest were plainly nothing but a forgettable gore fest as it featured so much violence and infighting which for me makes the 8th century not a period that interests me a lot. At the same time, as I mentioned earlier, the 8th century basically lacks sources to tell it in such a colorful way, but if sources mentioning that era were not so biased then possibly, I would appreciate it more but since we only get a one-sided story of the 8th century which for me tells it in such an uninteresting way, I have to put the 8th century in the bottom of this list as my personal worst century in all of Byzantine history.          

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The 6 emperors of the Byzantine 22-year-Anarchy (695-717)- Leontios (top-left, r. 695-698), Tiberius III (top-middle, r. 698-705), Justinian II Rhinotmetos (top-right, r. 705-711), Philippikos Bardanes (bottom-left, r. 711-713), Anastasius II (bottom-middle, r. 713-715), Theodosius III (bottom-right, r. 715-717), art by myself
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Victory for the Byzantines with Bulgarian aid against the Arabs in Constantinople, 718
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Iconoclasm- breaking of religious icons and persecution of monks in the Byzantine Empire under Constantine V (743-775)
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Empress Irene (r. 797-802), art by myself

To learn more about Byzantium in the 8th century, read Chapter V of my Byzantine Alternate History series.

And now I have come to the end of this list, and before I finish off, I have to say that when it comes to ranking the 12 centuries of Byzantine history, it is quite a difficult job as basically they all had their moments, except some were just more eventful than the others. Those that I have ranked in the highest numbers of this list such as the 10th, 5th, 6th, and 13th centuries were for me the centuries that had a lot of memorable and exciting moments as well as interesting characters from beginning to end while those ranked at the middle had mixed exciting moments but also dull ones while it is only the 14th and 8th centuries that I personally find less interesting although they too till had some interesting moments and characters. Basically, all these centuries show that Byzantine history was one big roller-coaster of ups and downs with many challenges which makes their history nothing more but totally interesting. Now, this article did not really have so much research involved as it just plainly involved my own thoughts and knowledge on the history of Byzantium. This entry is more or less a break from my extensive alternate history series in which I would want to share to you all my thoughts on the different centuries in Byzantine history. Anyway, this is all for this article on ranking the 12 centuries of Byzantine history from my personal best to worst, this is Powee Celdran the Byzantium Blogger, thank you all for viewing!

Lesser Known and Would be Byzantine Emperors continued (695-1453)

Posted by Powee Celdran

Previous Article: Lesser Known and Would be Roman and Byzantine Emperors (27BC-695AD)

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Welcome to the continuation of the previous article on lesser known and would be Roman and Byzantine emperors! In the previous article posted last week, I have discussed a huge number of names of people who were either actual Roman/ Byzantine emperors but we just don’t really know of as well as a lot of names of those who actually would have been emperors but never made it to power or had named themselves but were instantly deposed and either exiled, imprisoned, or executed when their plot was discovered by the reigning emperor. The previous article went as far back as the early days of the Roman Empire in the 1st century and ended at the end of the 7th century when the Roman Empire in the west had already collapsed but in the east, Roman rule still remained in a new form, which was as the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire ruled from Constantinople. Many centuries have gone by but the fact of imperial usurpers taking the throne either succeeding or failing wherein many of them have suffered the consequences of exile, imprisonment, blinding, and execution for trying to steal the throne still stays the same. The Roman Empire has had a long history of emperors with an unstable rule making many try to threaten it and take the throne from them and even with Roman rule gone in the west, these things would still remain in the east and by this you can truly tell that the Byzantine Empire is indeed the Roman Empire continued. If you think imperial rule in the old Roman Empire was unstable with many pretenders and usurpers along the way, the history of Byzantium would be many times much more unstable than that and if you may think Byzantine emperors ruled easily without anyone posing a threat to their authority, then read this article as true enough compared to the Roman rulers of the past, almost all Byzantine emperors in the Middle Ages had one or more persons to challenge their authority and try to make themselves emperor but almost of them failed which is why you would not really know anything about them. On the other hand, it would have been too long if both the previous and this article were one article so I decided to make it in two parts to not make it too long. Anyway, with the last article finishing at the end of the 7th century, this one will begin just there as the 8th century opens and by this point what was once the Roman Empire Byzantium was continues to be in terms of imperial authority but as the 7th century fades and the 8th opens, the Byzantine Empire now becomes a Greek speaking medieval empire but still Roman in authority but at the same time, the same old stories of imperial usurpers and power struggles remain and will do so until the empire’s end in the 15th century. Now this article will focus entirely on the Byzantine Empire itself but will also include rulers within the empire that tried or had declared independence from the empire to make their own state and will also have some honorable mentions of foreign rulers including the Frankish emperor Charlemagne, the French ruler Charles of Anjou, and the Serbian king Stefan Dusan who would have come close to becoming a Byzantine ruler even if they were from somewhere else. This article though will not mention rulers of the breakaway Byzantine states of Trebizond and Epirus after 1204 as they ruled entirely different states even if these states were almost exactly like the main Byzantine Empire itself. Definitely names of the rulers of the Latin Empire that took over Constantinople between 1204 and 1261 will not be mentioned here as well as their empire was a whole different story too and none of their rulers had any relation to the Byzantine Empire itself. However, this article will make a few exceptions naming rulers of the breakaway states of Trebizond and Epirus as well as Serbian and Bulgarian rulers if they at one point named themselves “Byzantine emperor” or “Emperor of the Romans”. Now we will begin in the year 695 with the overthrow of the emperor Justinian II, the last of the Heraclian Dynasty followed by a 22-year period of anarchy when the deposed emperor returns to power once, then followed by the times of the Isaurian, Nikephorian, Amorian, Macedonian, Doukas, Komnenos, Angelos, the temporary fall of Constantinople and the period of Byzantine rule in Nicaea, and finally onto the Palaiologos Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty and where they went after the death of the last emperor Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. Previously in the last article I have also shared the finale of Dovahhatty’s Unbiased History of Rome which concludes the story of the Western Roman Empire but even if that had ended, the Roman Empire itself did not die as Rome after all is not a place but a dream and up to the 15th century, that dreamed lived on as the Byzantine Empire.

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Crossover flag of the Roman and Byzantine Empires
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Byzantine Empire flag
Byzantine-Empire
The Byzantine Empire’s extents in 3 different periods
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Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the “Queen of Cities”

Related articles from the Byzantium Blogger:

Around the World in the Byzantine Era Part1 (300-1000)

Around the World in the Byzantine Era Part2 (1000-1461)

Roman and Byzantine Imperial Systems

Ethnic Origins of the Byzantine Emperors

Imperial Women in the Roman and Byzantine Empires

The Complete Byzantine Imperial Genealogy

Byzantine Imperial Personalities Part1

Byzantine Imperial Personalities Part2

Byzantine Imperial Personalities Part3

12 Turning Points in Byzantine History

Byzantine Crime, Punishment, and Medical Practice

The 94 Byzantine Emperors

A Guide to the Byzantine Empire’s Themes

15 Byzantine Related States Outside Byzantium Part1

15 Byzantine Related States Outside Byzantium Part2

War of the Sicilian Vespers: A Byzantine Epic Film

The Sieges of Constantinople

Watch the anime opening of the Byzantine Empire (from Remove DankMemes).

Watch this to see the history of the Byzantine Empire’s territories every month from 395 to 1453 (from Khey Pard).

Watch this to see the list of all Roman emperors from 27BC to 1453AD (from Dieu le Roi).

Related Lego Byzantine films from No Budget Films:

The Rise of Phokas: A Byzantine Epic (2019)

Summer of 1261: A Byzantine Epic (2019)

War of the Sicilian Vespers: A Byzantine Epic (2020)

V. The middle Byzantine Era (695-1081)

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Leontios (695-698) and Tiberius III (698-705)- The last emperor of Heraclius’ dynasty was Justinian II who succeeded his father Constantine IV in 685 but in 695, the people, army, senate, and Church turned on Justinian II and released the general or Strategos of the Anatolic Theme, the Isaurian Leontios and proclaimed him emperor. As Leontios seized power in Constantinople, he deposed and cut off Justinian II’s nose exiling him beginning Byzantium’s 22-year anarchy period. In 697, Leontios launched an expedition to recover Carthage which fell to the Arabs though the expedition failed and the army fearing severe punishments from Leontios killed their general John the Patrician on the way back to Constantinople and named the army officer the Germanic Apsimar as emperor. When arriving in Constantinople in 698, Apsimar seized the throne from Leontios and renamed himself Tiberius III Apsimar choosing to give up on the campaign to take back North Africa from the Arabs while Leontios like Justinian II before him got his nose and tongue mutilated and exiled to a monastery. In 705, Justinian II now without a nose returned to Constantinople from exile in the lands of the Khazars with the help of the Bulgarian king Tervel and his return was only noticed when the people saw him walking in the streets again as he sneaked through the aqueduct at night. Justinian II then took back the throne forcing Tiberius III to flee but when found, Justinian II had both usurpers Leontios and Tiberius III executed in front of him.

Philippikos (711-713), Anastasius II (713-715), and Theodosius III (715-717)-  Justinian II returned to power in 705 but his second reign was even more chaotic as in 710 a usurper in Ravenna named Georgios proclaimed himself emperor for a short time but in 711, the general Bardanes lead a massive rebellion against Justinian II and succeeded with Justinian II captured and beheaded while Justinian II’s son and heir Tiberius was executed as well. Bardanes who was of Armenian origin renamed himself Philippikos when becoming emperor and stationed an army in Thrace which in 713 suddenly rebelled against him and broke into Constantinople capturing and blinding him. The army then made Philippikos’ secretary Artemios the new emperor renamed Anastasius II while Philippikos was sent to a monastery where he died later that year. In Anastasius II’s short reign the Arab Umayyad Caliphate was advancing on Constantinople so he ordered the city’s wall to be repaired and the food supply restocked however his discipline policies on the army was too strict that the soldiers in the Opsician Theme of Asia Minor rebelled against him in 715 but without having an emperor in mind so they found a low-birth tax official and named him emperor against his will dragging him to Constantinople where they were able to force Anastasius II out installing the tax official as Emperor Theodosius III. Anastasius II fled but when found was sent to a monastery in Thessalonica while Theodosius III allied himself with the Bulgarians as in 716 the general of the Anatolic Theme the Isaurian Konon declared himself emperor. In 717, Konon and his forces arrived in Constantinople and Theodosius III easily abdicated as he never wanted to be emperor in the first place and as Konon became Emperor Leo III the anarchy period ended and Theodosius was sent to a monastery to become a monk later becoming the Bishop of Ephesus. Anastasius II however came out of the monastery in 719 declaring himself emperor again rebelling against Leo III who swiftly crushed the rebellion and executed Anastasius.

Watch this to learn more about the 22 year anarchy of Byzantium (from Eastern Roman History).

Basil Onomagoulos (718)- Between 717 and 718, Constantinople was besieged by the forces of the Umayyad Arab Caliphate but at the end was successfully defended by Leo III who had just come to power. In Sicily on the other hand, fake news arrived that Constantinople fell to the Arabs and in the panic the Sicilians named the Byzantine official Basil Onomagoulos their emperor taking the name Tiberius as they thought the empire had no more emperor. Leo III in 718 when hearing that someone named himself emperor in Sicily sent a general with his army to take care of the rebellion but when arriving in Sicily, the people being loyal to Constantinople surrendered Basil to the imperial army who executed him sending his head and hands to Leo III.

Tiberius Petasius (730)- Leo III would be best remembered for his Iconoclast policies outlawing the use of religious icons in the empire which created tensions in most places with one example being the Lagoon of Venice in Italy declaring independence from Byzantium by 730 refusing to follow the law which banned icons, here the people elected Orso Ipato as their leader or Doge. Also, in 730 in the area of Tuscany, someone by the name of Petasius usurped power declaring himself emperor with the name Tiberius and his purpose was to go against Leo III’s Iconoclast policy. The pope in Rome Gregory II however supported Tiberius since the pope was against Iconoclasm but the Exarch of Ravenna Eutychius who was on Leo III’s side marched his army to confront Tiberius and succeeded by killing Tiberius in battle.

Artavasdos and Nikephoros (742-743)- Back in 717, Leo III did not come to throne alone, rather he had the support of the army of the Armenian general Artavasdos, the general of the Armeniac Theme. As emperor, Leo III made Artavasdos head of the Opsician Theme, as well as the head of the palace or Curopalates, and married off Artavasdos to his daughter Anna and even promising Artavasdos he would succeed him as emperor. However, things went the other way around when Leo III’s son Constantine was born and in 741, Leo III died and was succeeded by his son Constantine V who was an even more of an Iconoclast extremist than his father though in 742 Constantine V headed east into Asia Minor to face of the Arab armies. Now due to Constantine V’s absence, his brother-in-law Artavasdos being promised the throne by Leo III rebelled, declared himself emperor and took over the imperial palace naming his son with Anna named Nikephoros, a grandson of Leo III as co-emperor. Artavasdos becoming emperor revealed that his true purpose was not because he felt left out but because he planned to reverse Leo III and Constantine V’s Iconoclast policies which he was against and so was his wife despite her father and brother being strong Iconoclasts. Constantine V in 743 though found out his brother-in-law usurped power and became emperor in Constantinople so he led his army back and defeated Artavasdos’ forces in a large civil war battle and when returning to Constantinople, Constantine V had Artavasdos and Nikephoros publicly blinded and confined in the Chora Monastery while Anna was allowed to retire peacefully. Artavasdos though may be a legitimate Byzantine emperor but his name is sometimes left out in the list of Byzantine emperors as many would skip his name and rather would go straight to Constantine V without any mention of Artavasdos.

Watch this to learn more about the story of Emperor Artavasdos (from Eastern Roman History).

Nikephoros Caesar (776/ 780/ 792/ 797/ 799/ 812)- Constantine V would rule a long reign after deposing Artavasdos in 743 and within his reign he had one son with his Khazar wife who would be his heir Leo IV and with his 3rd marriage Constantine V had 5 sons and one daughter named Anthousa who like all women in the family supported icons and was against Iconoclasm but among Constantine V’s 5 sons with his 3rd wife was Nikephoros named Caesar by his father and a strong supporter of Iconoclasm who would try to claim the Byzantine throne 6 different times. Constantine V died in 775 and was succeeded by his eldest son Leo IV the Khazar and at first his 5 younger half-brothers were fine with it until in 776 when Leo IV confiscated some of their wealth to pay the army making Nikephoros, one of the brothers lead a conspiracy to overthrow Leo IV which was however discovered and Nikephoros was only punished by being stripped of his title Caesar. In 780, Leo IV suddenly died and was succeeded by his young son Constantine VI who had to rule under the regency of his mother Irene of Athens and again Nikephoros hatched a conspiracy to overthrow Irene and Constantine VI not only because Irene was a woman but a supporter of icons which Nikephoros did not want to see return so he plotted to remove Irene and her son until the conspiracy was uncovered and Nikephoros was punished together with his 4 other brothers by being forced to become monks. Nikephoros would not appear again until 792 when at this point Constantine VI was ruling alone after banishing his mother but since Constantine VI suffered a heavy defeat to the Bulgarians in battle, the army now displeased with their emperor pulled Nikephoros out of the monastery and proclaimed him emperor but Constantine VI reacted quickly arresting his 5 uncles and having Nikephoros blinded while having the tongues of the other 4 uncles cut off. In 797, Irene returned to power now as the sole ruler of the empire after deposing and blinding her son Constantine VI but Nikephoros’ supporters although hating Constantine hated Irene more as they could not stand being ruled by woman so they again pulled Nikephoros who was now blind out of the monastery and proclaimed him emperor but when Irene heard of this, she had her court official Aetius arrest Nikephoros and the brothers one more time and banish them all to Athens but in 799, a military rebellion in Greece against Irene proclaimed support for Nikephoros again and named him emperor but when Irene heard of this, she this time had the other brothers blinded and locked up again in another monastery. The last time Nikephoros and his brothers would be in 812 and here Irene was already deposed and had died and Byzantium was now under Emperor Michael I Rangabe who was unsuccessful in fighting the Bulgarians that some territory was lost and with the soldiers angry about this, they proclaimed their support for Nikephoros, now an old man one last time. Michael I however dismissed the soldiers plotting to do it and exiled the brothers to a small island in the Marmara where they would die shortly after with Nikephoros possibly dying within 812.

Staurakios (799-800)- In 797, Irene usurped power from her son Constantine VI blinding him and making herself the sole ruler of the empire but her court officials Staurakios and Aetius were in a constant rivalry so when Irene fell ill in 799, Staurakios used it to his advantage and planned to usurp the throne despite being a eunuch, although he launched a rebellion in Cappadocia even getting the support of the general of the Anatolic Theme but right before the rebellion was fully organized, he died in 800 in Cappadocia.

Honorable Mention: Charlemagne (800-814)- While Roman rule remained in the east, the barbarians that invaded the west built up their own kingdoms with the most powerful of them being the Franks in Gaul which became known as France and in 768 Charles I would become its king conquering all lands from the barbarians from Germany to Spain and from Denmark to Italy and for this he would be known as Charles the Great or Charlemagne. In 800, he was crowned Roman emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome and he would have been ruler of both east and west uniting the Roman Empire again if he were to marry Irene which Irene proposed to him. Constantinople was too far for Charlemagne to go to and the Byzantine people opposed Irene’s plan to marry Charlemagne as they saw him as a barbarian and not fit to rule them so in 802, the people being disgusted with Irene staged a rebellion and overthrew her replacing her with her finance minister Nikephoros I. The idea of the restored Roman unity thus never happened and Nikephoros I (not the same Nikephoros who tried to claim the throne 6 times) refused to even have Charlemagne’s name mentioned in the empire.

Watch this to learn more about an alternate history if Charlemagne and Irene married (from AltHistory).

Bardanes Tourkos (803) and Arsaber (808)- The finance minister Nikephoros I succeeded Irene in 802 and he immediately began reforming the ruined economy with new tax policies though like Irene Nikephoros supported the icons. When becoming emperor, Nikephoros appointed a general named Bardanes Tourkos whose last name means “the Turk” in charge of the Anatolic Theme but he was a supporter of Iconoclasm and was against Nikephoros’ economic policies so in 803 he declared himself emperor and ordered his army to march to Constantinople. Bardanes’ commanders however deserted him and the people of Constantinople did not support him so Bardanes surrendered and was forced to become a monk. Now In 808, Nikephoros I’s rule was challenged again as a group of secular and ecclesiastic officials grew dissatisfied with Nikephoros I’s rule so they formed a conspiracy and acclaimed the Armenian nobleman Arsaber as emperor. The plot never succeeded as when it was discovered by Nikephoros, Arsaber was sent to Bithynia in Asia Minor to become a monk.

Staurakios, son of Nikephoros I (811)- In 802, Nikephoros I became emperor after Irene was overthrown and in 803, he elevated his son Staurakios as his co-emperor marrying him to Irene’s cousin Theophano of Athens in 407. In 811 however, Nikephoros and Staurakios led the army against the Bulgarians at the Battle of Pliska where the Byzantines lost and Nikephoros was killed here with his head decapitated and brought to the Bulgarian king Kum who used it as his drinking cup. Staurakios though survived but was paralyzed from the battle but with his father dead, he automatically became emperor though unable to walk due his injuries that he had to be brought back to Constantinople from Bulgaria in a litter. Back in Constantinople, Staurakios tried his best to rule but due to his injuries it was impossible as he was paralyzed from his spine downwards so his wife Theophano backed herself to succeed him and his sister backed her husband Michael Rangabe. The court officials though proclaimed Michael I Rangabe emperor and after only 2 months in power in 811, Staurakios abdicated and retired to a monastery where he died the next year. Though a legitimate emperor, Staurakios’ name may not be well remembered as he only ruled for 2 months.

Watch this to learn more about the story of Emperor Staurakios (from Eastern Roman History).

Thomas the Slav (821-823)- In 813, as Byzantium was facing war with the Bulgarian Empire, the emperor Michael I abdicated when 3 rebel generals rose up against him; these 3 were Leo the Armenian, Michael of Amorion, and Thomas the Slav who were all strong supporters of Iconoclasm and out of the 3, Leo became Emperor Leo V also making his son Sabbatios his co-emperor who would be renamed Constantine. Among the 3 generals, Thomas who was of Slavic origin first came into the picture helping Bardanes Tourkos against Nikephoros I in 803 but disappeared after Bardanes surrendered and only when Leo the Armenian revolted against Michael I in 813 did Thomas come back. Thomas served as one of Leo V’s top generals but on Christmas Eve of 820, Leo V was assassinated in a conspiracy led by Michael of Amorion who Leo had locked up in a cell to delay his execution but this gave Michael time to have assassins kill Leo V which they did and the next day, they proclaimed him as Emperor Michael II with the chains still on his feet while Leo’s son Sabbatios was sent to a monastery to avoid a power struggle. Though not only Michael wanted the throne, Thomas also did but he was away when this happened so in the following year (821), Thomas quickly revolted getting the support of the Themes and armies of Asia Minor making avenging Leo V’s death his reason to rebel, although when usurping the throne and proclaiming himself emperor, he claimed to be the former emperor Constantine VI, the son of Empress Irene still alive, though Constantine VI may have already been dead at this time. Thomas only used his claim of being Constantine VI to gain support of the army but Michael II certainly knew he was his old military comrade Thomas the Slav, although Thomas quickly gained support from the armies as he was a respected figure in Asia Minor while Michael was originally just an uneducated soldier of low birth. Before sailing to Constantinople to besiege it, Thomas got support from the Arab Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad while Michael gained support of the Bulgarian king Omurtag and in 822 Thomas’ forces attacked Constantinople though Michael defended it well against Thomas’ ships using Greek Fire and the aid from the Bulgarians weakened the rebels allowing Michael to march into the field with his men forcing Thomas and his men to flee to the nearby town of Arcadiopolis where Michael’s men surrounded Thomas and his surviving men. In 823 with Thomas’ army now in starvation they surrendered to Michael II’s army in exchange for pardon and they were set free but Thomas was executed there in front of Michael II. Thomas’ rebellion would be one of the largest and bloodiest in Byzantine history and not just one in the quest of power but a social rebellion as well as many common people of Asia Minor took sides with Thomas.     

Euphemius (826-827)- Michael II had successfully defeated Thomas the Slav in 823 thus securing his power but out of nowhere in 826, his authority would be challenged by the Byzantine admiral in Sicily Euphemius when Michael II ordered his demotion and when Euphemius heard of this, he rebelled proclaiming himself emperor and getting the support of the Arab Aghlabid Kingdom in North Africa to help him take over Sicily. With the help of the Arabs, Euphemius was able to capture Syracuse, the Byzantine capital of Sicily and kill its governor Constantine though in 827, Michael II sent his forces to Sicily and there they killed Euphemius in battle though Euphemius’ rebellion only made things worse for the Byzantines as his alliance with the Arabs began the Muslim conquest of Byzantine Sicily.

Theophobos (838-839)- Michael II died in 829 leaving the empire to his son Emperor Theophilos and in his reign, the Arab Abbasid Caliphate conquered Western Iran in 833 forcing its people to flee to Byzantine territory and one of them was Nasir who would convert to Christianity and join the Byzantine army changing his name to the Greek Theophobos. The Iranian Theophobos would end up becoming a cavalry commander in the Byzantine army and commanded it at the Battle of Anzen against the Abbasids in 838 somewhere in Asia Minor where the Byzantines lost. In the aftermath of the battle, some soldiers feeling Emperor Theophilos was a weak ruler, they proclaimed the Iranian Theophobos as emperor against his will. Theophobos instead chose to surrender to the emperor and in 839 with Theophilos preparing to confront the rebels, Theophobos surrendered to the emperor and since Theophilos saw that Theophobos posed no threat, Theophobos was restored to his position in the army. 3 years later though in 842 as Theophilos was dying, he changed his mind ordering his brother-in-law the general Petronas to execute Theophobos believing Theophobos might challenge Theophilos’ son Michael III’s rule.

Karbeas (843-863) and Chrysocheir (863-872)- Theophilos’ son Michael III came to power at only age 2 in 842 and ruled under the regency of his mother Theodora who finally put an end to Iconoclasm in 843 but issued laws against the heretical Paulician sect of Asia Minor leading to the massacre of about 100,000 Paulicians, although 5,000 survived under the leadership of Karbeas who took over the city of Tephrike along the Upper Euphrates in 843 and establishing his own principality there declaring it independent from the empire. Karbeas too made an alliance with the Arab Abbasid Caliphate and the Arab Emirate of Samosata against the Byzantines meeting with the imperial forces commanded by Michael III and his uncle Petronas at the Battle of Lalakaon in 863, and here the Byzantines won a victory defeating the Arabs and killing Karbeas in battle. Although with Karbeas dead, his principality survived as he was succeeded by his nephew Chrysocheir. Back in Constantinople, Michael III was killed in 867 by the man he thought he could trust most, the Macedonian peasant Basil who after killing Michael III proclaimed himself Byzantine emperor while in Asia Minor Chrysocheir was known for some scandalous behavior to the Byzantines such as using a church to stable horses. As emperor, Basil I focused his attention on defeating the Paulicians at their stronghold of Tephrike before bringing the war back to the Arabs and in 871 Basil I laid siege to Tephrike but failed to take it, though in the next year (872) Basil’s army led by the general Christopher faced off Chrysocheir and his forces in battle where Chrysocheir was killed and the Paulicians defeated with Tephrike absorbed back to Byzantium.

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The Byzantine Empire (yellow) in 842

 

Andronikos Doukas (906-907)- Basil I coming to power in 867 and established the Macedonian Dynasty and in 886 he died under mysterious circumstances and was succeeded by his son Leo VI. In Leo VI’s reign, one general would rise up against him, this was Andronikos Doukas the first person of the prominent Doukas family to be mentioned who in 906 disobeyed Leo VI’s orders to lead a military expedition against the Arabs, instead he seized the fortress of Kaballa near Iconium for himself proclaiming himself emperor too. Leo VI however sent an army to hunt him down but Andronikos fled to Baghdad to get the help of the Abbasid Arabs where he died in exile there in 910.

 

Constantine Doukas (913)- Emperor Leo VI the Wise had died in 912 and in the one year following his death, he was succeeded by his brother Alexander who died suddenly in 913 creating a power struggle in the empire as his successor, Leo VI’s son Constantine VII was too young so he was placed under a troubled regency led by his mother Empress Zoe Karbonopsina and the Patriarch of Constantinople Nikolaos Mystikos but both were at odds with each other. The troubled regency gave the opportunity for Leo VI’s general Constantine Doukas, son of the usurper Andronikos Doukas to usurp the throne also in 913 leading a military rebellion to Constantinople. Constantine though happened to be supported by the patriarch needing military aid to overthrow the empress and her son however when Constantine arrived in Constantinople, the patriarch gave up his support and joined sides to the empress seeing Constantine would be dangerous so the regents had soldiers defend the walls which clashed with Constantine’s forces. When both forces clashed, Constantine tried to flee but he slipped and fell off his horse, thus killed by arrows shot by the city guards of the regents. Constantine’s forces then surrendered and most were either executed or blinded by the regents, though the Doukas family would later on return and one day become emperors.

 

Leo Phokas the Elder (919)- Aside from the Doukas clan, another prominent clan of 10th century Byzantium was the Phokas clan and while the regency of Constantine VII remained troubled all the way until 919, when the general Leo Phokas the Elder usurped power. Before that, in 917 Leo Phokas led the Byzantine army against the Bulgarians in battle but was defeated as the Byzantine admiral Romanos Lekapenos and his fleet failed to arrive and with the defeat, the regency of the emperor’s mother Constantine VII was even more troubled that she even agreed to marry Leo Phokas but in 919 Romanos Lekapenos objected it so Leo usurped power declaring himself emperor seeing Romanos as not worthy to take power due to being an Armenian of low birth. The emperor Constantine VII however turned to the protection of Romanos marrying Romanos’ daughter Helena while Leo’s soldiers turned against him to support Romanos. Leo fled after his men turned on him but was captured and brought to Constantinople to be paraded on a mule and afterwards blinded by Romanos, what then happened to Leo afterwards is unknown but in 920 Romanos took the throne becoming the senior emperor, though much later on Leo’s nephew would become emperor.       

 

Christopher (921-931), Stephen (924-945), and Constantine Lekapenos (924-945)- The Armenian admiral Romanos I Lekapenos came to power as Byzantine emperor in 920 to protect the young Constantine VII who was not removed from power but brought down to having no importance while Romanos I would rule as the senior and ruling emperor thinking of creating his own dynasty. In order to put his entire family in power, first he married his daughter Helena to Constantine VII then in 921 Romanos made his eldest son Christopher who was then the commander of the palace guard his co-emperor even if Constantine VII had the title by right of birth. In 924, Romanos I made his 2 other sons Stephen and Constantine his co-emperors making there be 5 emperors in the empire with the rightful one Constantine VII pushed down to being the least important of the 5. Nothing much is said about Christopher’s reign as co-emperor except that in 927 his young daughter Irene was married to the new Bulgarian emperor Peter I when Romanos I finally made peace with the Bulgarian Empire, though in 931 Christopher died of illness leaving his 2 younger brothers to rule with their father and Constantine VII. While Stephen and Constantine ruled with their father, their younger brother Theophylact was made Patriarch of Constantinople despite caring more about horses than his job but Romanos I would soon grow tired of Stephen and Constantine’s incompetence making him start to favor Constantine VII over them making the brothers angry. In 944, Stephen and Constantine staged a palace coup with some guards and stormed their father’s room dragging him out of bed and banished him to a monastery in the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea outside the city. For about 2 weeks only after deposing Romanos I, Stephen and Constantine ruled as the co-emperors of the empire but early in 945, Constantine VII whose life was now in danger staged a coup to overthrow the brothers which was joined by his wife and her other brother the patriarch Theophylact and also Romanos I’s illegitimate son Basil and together, they overthrew Stephen and Constantine sending them to the same monastery as their father where they joined him there and Constantine VII returned to power as the sole emperor. With the 3 in exile, Constantine was first to die in 946 while his father Romanos I died in 948 also in the same monastery, and Stephen would be banished to another island where he died all the way in 963.     

Basil the Copper Hand (932)- Back when Romanos I was still senior emperor before being banished in 944, he was however not very popular and a rebellion rose up against him in 932. This rebellion was led by the military leader Basil the Copper Hand whose hands were previously cut off for some crimes, though he replaced his hands with copper ones and wielded a large sword. In 932, Basil gathered some poor and destitute people of Asia Minor in a rebellion against the emperor seizing some cities and proclaiming himself emperor. Romanos I however when finding out about this sent an army to crush the rebellion which they did and delivered Basil to Constantinople where he started accusing some landlords for starting rebellion which was proven false so Basil was burned to death in public.

 

Kalokyros (968-971)- Fast-forward to the 960s and at this point, the usurper in 919 Leo Phokas the Elder’s nephew Nikephoros II Phokas had become emperor in 963 following the death of Constantine VII’s son Romanos II. In 968, as Nikephoros II was at war with Bulgaria he turned to the Kievan Rus’ prince Sviatoslav I for an alliance so Nikephoros II sent the patrician and general Kalokyros to Sviatoslav who was preparing to invade Bulgaria to pay him off. Nikephoros however did not know Kalokyros had his own imperial ambitions so when arriving to where Sviatoslav was, Kalokyros paid off his bribe to Sviatoslav in order to support his claim as emperor and not to help against the Bulgarians. Sviatoslav then took the payment and used it to support Kalokyros’ claim as emperor. Kalokyros though never returned to Constantinople and instead stayed with Sviatoslav who loved and respected him as a brother but in 969, Nikephoros II was killed in his sleep by his nephew John Tzimiskes who became emperor and declared war on the invading Kievan Rus. In 971, John I Tzimiskes defeated Sviatoslav but both would make peace, although Kalokyros was captured and executed by the Byzantines in the Bulgarian city of Preslav for treason.

 

Leo Phokas the Younger (970)- Nikephoros II Phokas before becoming emperor in 963 was a successful general together with his younger brother Leo Phokas the Younger who both originated in Cappadocia. With Nikephoros II as emperor between 963 and 969, Leo was his brother’s top general and head of the palace also joining his brother in more successful campaigns against the Arabs. In 969 however, Nikephoros II was killed by his nephew John Tzimiskes who quickly assumed the title of emperor but in 970 when Leo heard of this, he was not pleased as he was the brother of the late emperor and was destined to be the immediate successor so Leo declared himself emperor and staged a rebellion against his nephew John I but the rebellion was unsuccessful and Leo was exiled to Lesbos where he staged a rebellion again in 971 which again failed and he was blinded and sentenced to live in a monastery where he died in an unknown date.   

 

Bardas Phokas the Younger (971/ 987-989)- Though Leo Phokas the Younger’s rebellions of 970 and 971 failed, his son Bardas Phokas the Younger took over his father’s rebellion against Emperor John I Tzimiskes in 971 when Bardas was proclaimed emperor by his army in his homeland of Cappadocia but shortly after the general Bardas Skleros who was loyal to the emperor captured and imprisoned Bardas Phokas in Chios. Back in Constantinople, Nikephoros II and his nephew John I after him ruled as senior emperors for the underaged rightful emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII, the sons of the previous emperor Romanos II, though in 976 John I died and was succeeded by Basil II who was now at the right age to rule, although not all were happy with it especially Bardas Skleros who in 978 turned against the imperial family and rebelled making Basil II’s advisor and uncle the eunuch Basil Lekapenos (illegitimate son of Romanos I) release Bardas Phokas from prison to deal with Skleros. Phokas easily crushed the rebellion of Skleros forcing Skleros to flee to Baghdad while Phokas for his loyalty was rewarded by being made the governor of Antioch. In 987 however, Bardas Phokas rebelled again after being disillusioned with the emperor Basil II who led the army to defeat against the Bulgarians at the Battle of Trajan’s Gate and this time, Phokas after being declared emperor again made an alliance with his former enemy Bardas Skleros who was also declared emperor against Basil II. However, Basil II made an alliance with the new Prince of the Kievan Rus’ Vladimir I who Basil II married off his sister to in exchange for 6,000 Nordic mercenaries known as the Varangian Guard. Now with the Byzantine empire having 4 emperors (the 4th being Basil II’s brother and co-emperor Constantine VIII), Basil II decided to deal with Phokas first using the Varangian Guard to annihilate Phokas’ army right across the sea from Constantinople and as Phokas was about to charge to Basil II in battle, Phokas suffered a stroke, fell off his horse, and died leaving his army leaderless defecting to Basil II.

Watch this to learn more about the story of Emperor Basil II (from Tooky History).

 

Bardas Skleros (976-979/ 987-990)- As mentioned earlier, the general Bardas Skleros of the prominent Skleros clan first defeated Bardas Phokas’ rebellion in 971 capturing and imprisoning Phokas but after the emperor John I Tzimiskes died in 976 who Skleros was loyal to, he rebelled against the new emperor Basil II but the former rebel general Bardas Phokas was released from prison in 978 and quickly defeated Skleros and his rebellion in 979 forcing Skleros to flee to Baghdad. In 987, following Basil II’s defeat to the Bulgarians at the Battle of Trajan’s Gate, Skleros returned to Byzantium from Baghdad and joined up with Bardas Phokas, his former enemy in turning against the emperor where both Phokas and Skleros would be made emperors. Bardas Phokas though died in battle in 989 after suffering a stroke so Skleros succeeded him as the rebel emperor although with most of Phokas’ men defecting to Basil II, Skleros was hopeless so in 990, Skleros surrendered to Basil II who allowed Skleros to retire peacefully dying in 991.

 

Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos (1022)- Following the defeats of Bardas Phokas and Bardas Skleros, there was no one left to challenge the emperor Basil II who in 1014 finally crushed the Bulgarian Empire absorbing it into Byzantium by 1018. In 1022 however, a usurper would rise up against Basil II and this was Bardas Phokas’ son Nikephoros known as Barytrachelos or “heavy neck” and after most of Georgia was conquered by the Byzantines, the general who did the work of conquering Georgia, Nikephoros Xiphias conspired to overthrow Basil II supporting Nikephoros Phokas as his emperor as he was the grand-nephew of the former emperor Nikephoros II. Both men however did not trust each other and Xiphias killed Phokas, thus the rebellion never pushed through.

Nikephoros Komnenos (1025)- In 1025, Basil II died with the Byzantine Empire at its largest extent again having the whole Balkans, Southern Italy, and east all the way to Georgia and Armenia and in the east, the former Armenian kingdom there known as Vaspurakan was the last to be absorbed to the empire and a man named Nikephoros Komnenos was its governor, and this would be the first time a member of the prominent Komnenos family would be first mentioned. After the death of Basil II however, Nikephoros Komnenos had conspired with the king of Georgia George I to make him emperor and Vaspurakan its own kingdom again. The troops of Cappadocia soon enough discovered Nikephoros’ act of treason and brought Nikephoros over to Constantinople where the new emperor, Basil II’s brother Constantine VIII charged Nikephoros with treason and blinded him the following year (1026), though it is unclear on how Nikephoros died.

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The Byzantine Empire (red) in 1025

 

Constantine Diogenes (1029/ 1032)- Constantine VIII eventually died in 1028 and was succeeded by his son-in-law Romanos III Argyros married to Constantine VIII’s daughter Zoe and in 1029, Romanos III faced a conspiracy led by the general in the Balkans Constantine Diogenes who was recalled to Constantinople where he was beaten in public and sentenced to a monastery but when Romanos III was absent campaigning in the east in 1032, Constantine was released from the monastery by his wife Theodora who helped him plot to take the throne. Romanos III while on campaign discovered that Constantine was set to take the throne when the plot was leaked to him by the bishop of Thessalonica so the emperor had Constantine brought to the palace to confess his crimes but instead of confessing it, Constantine killed himself by throwing himself off the walls of the palace to avoid torture, though true enough Constantine’s son Romanos would be emperor some years later.

 

Stefan Vojislav (1034/ 1040-1043), Michael Keroularios (1040), and Peter Delyan (1040-1041)- As part of Basil II’s conquest of Bulgaria, Serbia too was annexed into the Byzantine Empire and a local prince, Stefan Vojislav of Duklja was made its governor or Archon in 1018. In 1034, Vojislav rebelled against Byzantine rule declaring his state of Duklja in today’s Montenegro independent though the emperor at this time, Michael IV had Vojislav arrested and imprisoned in Constantinople while another general was sent to be in charge of Duklja. In 1038 however, Vojislav escaped prison and returned to Duklja overthrowing the Byzantine governor and in 1040 after refusing to return the goods from a shipwrecked Byzantine ship to the empire, he declared Duklja an independent state with him as its ruler and never again would it return to Byzantine rule, Vojislav would then die in 1043. Back in Constantinople in 1040, a nobleman named Michael Keroularios led a conspiracy to overthrow Michael IV and make himself emperor but when the plot was uncovered, Michael IV did not punish Keroularios severely instead just made Keroularios a monk and in 1043 he became Patriarch of Constantinople. Also, in 1040, Delyan who was a local Bulgarian claiming to be the grandson of the former Bulgarian emperor declared himself the Bulgarian emperor renaming himself Peter starting a rebellion against Michael IV and Byzantium which Michael IV sent an army to crush and in the army was the Varangian Guard including the future king of Norway Harald Hardrada. In 1041 however, a Bulgarian named Alusian who was Peter Delyan’s cousin took sides with the Byzantines and during a dinner one night, Alusian got Delyan drunk and cut off Delyan’s nose and blinding him with a kitchen knife while his forces were defeated by the Byzantines. Some say Harald Hardrada killed Delyan himself in battle but either way, Delyan was still brought to Constantinople where he was executed.

 

Theophilos Erotikos (1042), George Maniakes (1042-1043), Leo Tornikios (1047), and Constantine Barys (1052)- Later in 1041, Emperor Michael IV died of epilepsy and was succeeded by his nephew Michael V who was so unpopular that the next year (1042) the people of Constantinople seized and blinded him putting back Michael IV’s wife and Constantine VIII’s daughter Zoe back in power who married the senator Constantine Monomachos to put a male emperor in power. With the overthrow of Michael V however, the former governor of Duklja Theophilos Erotikos who Vojislav expelled in 1040 who afterwards became governor of Cyprus rebelled against the new emperor Constantine IX with his army and the people of Cyprus but Constantine IX sent a fleet to Cyprus and the army that arrived there in the fleet crushed Theophilos’ rebellion and brought Theophilos himself to Constantinople where he was humiliated being paraded in the Hippodrome dressed in women’s clothes though he was spared but his properties confiscated, but it is unclear what happened to Theophilos afterwards. Also, in 1042, George Maniakes, the Byzantine general in charge of Southern Italy revolted against Constantine IX declaring himself emperor. Back in 1038, Maniakes practically took back all of Sicily from the Arabs but the campaign was cancelled as his soldiers deserted him and he himself was recalled making the Arabs take back Sicily again. In 1042 though, under Constantine IX, Maniakes returned to his post as the general in charge of Southern Italy but suddenly his troops including Varangian Guards proclaimed him emperor and they marched east to Constantinople to overthrow Constantine IX. When confronting Constantine IX’s forces in Greece in 1043 however, Maniakes was killed in battle and his rebellion failed. In 1047, the army in Thrace being unhappy with Constantine IX’s policies rebelled and in Adrianople proclaimed their general Leo Tornikios, Constantine IX’s nephew as emperor afterwards marching south to besiege Constantinople. Tornikios and his army however found it impossible to besiege Constantinople’s walls so as the rebel soldiers were growing tired, Constantine IX himself sent them bribes which they accepted and deserted Tornikios who just gave up the siege and escaped only to be found and on Christmas Day of 1047 he was blinded, nothing then would be heard from him afterwards. Years later in 1052, a general named Constantine Barys was suspected of plotting against Constantine IX so he was exiled but in exile in an unknown location, he plotted to take the throne from the emperor gathering an army but when his plot was uncovered, Constantine IX had his tongue cut off, though nothing would be heard from Barys afterwards.

 

Nikephoros Proteuon (1055), Theodosius Monomachos (1056), Nikephoros Bryennios (1057), and Herve Frankopoulos (1057)- Constantine IX died in 1055 and was succeeded by his sister-in-law Theodora, the sister of his late wife Zoe but in the Theme of Bulgaria, its governor Nikephoros Proteuon was chosen by Constantine IX to succeed him but Theodora quickly came to power and discovered that Proteuon staged a rebellion in Bulgaria naming himself emperor so Theodora quickly acted by having Proteuon arrested and banished. Theodora would only rule the empire for a year and before her death in 1056, Constantine IX’s nephew Theodosius Monomachos knowing that there was no named heir plotted to take the throne for himself gathering some people in the city including prisoners who he broke free and armed later rioting in the streets. At the same day Theodosius led the riot, the empress died and the court in response to the riots named Theodora’s secretary Michael Bringas as emperor who then quelled the riots and had Theodosius and his supporters banished never to return. As the new emperor, Michael VI was known to snob the army which angered a general named Nikephoros Bryennios who in 1057 launched a revolt overthrow Michael VI but his plot was uncovered and Bryennios was arrested and blinded though his failed revolt only inspired the general Isaac Komnenos to stage an even bigger rebellion that succeeded in overthrowing Michael VI also in 1057. At the same time in 1057 however, a Norman who was the commander of the Norman mercenaries in the Byzantine army named Herve Frankopoulos rebelled against Michael VI establishing his own state in the Armeniac Theme in Asia Minor but was eventually captured by the Arab emir of Ahlat and brought to Constantinople as a prisoner, although Herve was spared.

 

Philaretos Brachamios (1071-1078), Constantine Bodin (1072-1073), Roussel de Bailleul (1073-1074), John Doukas (1074), and Nestor (1076-1078)- Fast-forward to 1071, here the Byzantine Empire lost one of its greatest defeats which would begin the slow end of the empire, this was the Battle of Manzikert against the Seljuks and here the Byzantines were outnumbered by the army of the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan who then proceeded to conquer Asia Minor while the emperor here Romanos IV Diogenes was captured but eventually released. Although back in Constantinople, Michael VII came to power in Romanos IV’s absence but other than that, one of Romanos’ generals the Armenian Philaretos Brachamios who also led a division in Manzikert deserted the emperor and soon enough was acclaimed emperor by his troops thus establishing an independent state in Eastern Asia Minor which included Edessa and Antioch commanding an army mostly made of Frankish mercenaries and the emperor Michael VII just allowed it to happen without punishing Philaretos though in 1078 when the emperor Michael VII was deposed, Philaretos gave up his claim as emperor in exchange for the title of “Duke of Antioch”. On the other side of the empire in 1072, a Slavic noble in Bulgaria named Constantine Bodin led the Bulgarians against Byzantine rule declaring himself “Emperor of the Bulgarians” although Michael VII quickly dealt with it by having Constantine arrested and brought to Constantinople and from there brought to Antioch which was under Philaretos. Michael VII’s rule was not only faced by Byzantine generals usurping the throne but by foreign mercenaries as well such as the Norman Roussel de Bailleul in 1073 who previously commanded the division of Norman mercenaries at the Battle Manzikert established his own independent state in Asia Minor being its prince with Ankara as its capital. Michael VII reacted to Bailleul’s separatist movement by having his uncle John Doukas command an army and attack Bailleul’s state but when it failed, Michael VII thought of making a deal with the Seljuk sultan to give him all of Asia Minor in exchange for defeating Bailleul but Michael VII would instead go for the better option of sending the more competent general Alexios Komnenos to defeat Bailleul which at the end Alexios died and brought Bailleul as a prisoner to Constantinople in 1074. However, before Alexios was able to defeat Bailleul, John Doukas the emperor’s uncle and younger brother of the previous emperor Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059-1067) failed to defeat Bailleul and his Normans so instead the Normans proclaimed him emperor in 1074 which he accepted so it was here where Michael VII asked the Seljuks to defeat the Normans and his uncle but the Seljuks only succeeded in taking John Doukas as prisoner. John would eventually be ransomed by Michael but to punish him for usurping, John was forced to become a monk. All the way till the end of Michael VII’s 7-year-reign there were still more usurpers, one of them being his father Constantine X’s former slave Nestor who was made the general in charge of the borders in Bulgaria and with his soldiers not receiving enough pay and his property confiscated by the court minister Nikephoritzes, they rebelled in 1076 and proclaimed Nestor their emperor. Michael VII was not able to quickly deal with Nestor’s rebellion until 1078 when the same general Alexios Komnenos was sent to Bulgaria to crush it, though Nestor to fight back allied himself with the Pechenegs, however at the end Alexios crushed the rebellion and Nestor fled with the Pechenegs never to return again.

Watch this to learn more about the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 (from Kings and Generals).

 

Constantius Doukas (1060-1078), Nikephoros and Leo Diogenes (1070-1071), Andronikos Doukas (1068-1077), and Constantine Doukas (1074-1078)- Prior to the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, a general with not much experience but rather with an obsession for theology named Constantine Doukas became emperor in 1059 after he was chosen by the previous emperor Isaac I Komnenos who abdicated, and here is when the Doukas family that have been prominent for the longest time come to power. As the senior emperor, Constantine X in 1060 elevated his eldest son Michael and youngest newborn son Constantius as his co-emperors but out of unknown reasons, he did not give his middle son Andronikos the title. Constantine X though died in 1067 but did not name any of his sons the new emperor as they were all still young, instead his wife Eudokia Makrembolitissa acted as regent for her sons for a few months until 1068 when marrying the strong general Romanos Diogenes, the son of the usurper Constantine Doukas who killed himself back in 1032; after being married, Romanos IV became emperor as at this point the empire needed a strong military emperor and not a mother acting as regent for her sons though at the same time in 1068 Andronikos, the middle son of Constantine X and Eudokia was then only raised to co-emperor by his step-father possibly by Eudokia’s request. The following year (1069), Empress Eudokia gave birth to the twins Nikephoros and Leo with Romanos IV and in 1070 the twins were also made co-emperors with their 3 half-brothers making there be 6 emperors running the empire but with only one being Romanos IV actually running things, despite Romanos IV already having a son named Constantine from his previous marriage was excluded from the succession being estranged from his father. In 1071, Romanos IV was defeated in Manzikert by the Seljuks and taken as their prisoner and with his absence, Michael VII in Constantinople immediately became the senior emperor with his brothers Constantius and Andronikos as his co-emperors but the infant twins Nikephoros and Leo would be removed from power and banished to a monastery while their father Romanos losing the thone tried to take it back in 1072 but failed and as a result was blinded by Michael VII’s orders which ended up killing Romanos. Michael VII though would rule as a weak and ineffective emperor and so were his brothers though Michael would be married to the Georgian princess Maria of Alania and have one son named Constantine born in 1074 and immediately made co-emperor and in 1077 Andronikos would die while in the following year Michael would be forced to abdicate as the generals Nikephoros Bryennios and Nikephoros Botaneiates had staged a rebellion. Michael VII would become a monk and later bishop of Ephesus while Constantine would not be made junior emperor of the new emperor Nikephoros III Botaneiates despite the new emperor marrying Maria of Alania. Constantius though still being around tried to assert his claim to the throne against the new emperor but when the plot was uncovered, Constantius just before starting his rebellion was handed over to Nikephoros and banished to become a monk in the Princes’ Islands.   

 

Nikephoros Bryennios (1077-1078), Nikephoros Basilakes (1078-1079), and Melissenos (1080-1081)- Due to his weak rule of the empire, Michael VII was faced with many usurping generals and in 1077 one of them named Nikephoros Bryennios almost succeeded in taking over the throne. Nikephoros Bryennios was one of the generals of Romanos IV in Manzikert back in 1071 but in 1077, Michael VII’s court minister Nikephoritzes placed Bryennios’ name on the assassination list which Bryennios found out about making him assemble a multinational mercenary army marching to Constantinople with it even allowing them to burn and sack the suburbs and do the same to the capital when they storm into it. Bryennios however never made it to the throne as in 1078, another general named Nikephoros Botaneiates beat him to it capturing Constantinople and forcing Michael VII to abdicate and become a monk. With Nikephoros III Botaneiates as the new emperor, Michael VII’s young general Alexios Komnenos switched sides to Nikephoros III and was sent to deal with Bryennios’ rebellion. Despite having a larger force than Alexios, Bryennios was defeated by Alexios and blinded, afterwards sent to Adrianople where he would retire. Though Bryennios was defeated, Nikephoros III was still not yet secured in power as also in 1078, the general in charge of Dyrrhachion in Albania, another Nikephoros with the last name of Basilakes in the war to claim the throne also proclaimed himself emperor at the same time Nikephoros III did and marched his army to Constantinople but when arriving in Macedonia, news reached him that Nikephoros III took the throne so Nikephoros III sent his best general Alexios to confront Basilakes. Alexios was able to confront and defeat Basilakes in 1079 by surrounding his army at night; Basilakes was then delivered to the emperor who had him blinded. In 1080, one of Michael VII’s loyal generals another Nikephoros with the last name of Melissenos who was sent into exile by Nikephoros III returned and gathered an army to rebel proclaiming himself emperor as well with the help of the Seljuks but in 1081, Alexios Komnenos gave up his loyalty to Nikephoros III and usurped the throne and when finding out Alexios became emperor, Melissenos gave up his claim for the throne and in return Alexios I rewarded him with the title of Caesar and a commanding position in the army as both together with Constantius Doukas who was released from the Princes’ Islands led the army against the Norman invasion in Byzantine Albania later in 1081. Constantius though would die in the battle against the Normans where the Byzantines lost but Alexios still survived and as the new emperor, he also released Romanos IV’s young twin sons Nikephoros and Leo now much older from the monastery and adopting them together with Michael VII’s son Constantine in which Alexios I would act like a father to all 3 of them even making Constantine Doukas his junior co-emperor.

 

VI. The late Byzantine era (1081-1453)

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Tzachas of Smyrna (1092), Karykes (1093), and Rhapsomates (1093)- Alexios I Komnenos came to power as emperor in 1081 ending a long period of chaos in the empire but at the same time he became emperor, the Great Seljuk Empire that had taken over Asia Minor broke apart into several Beyliks or principalities with one of them being based in the coastal city of Smyrna ruled by an emir named Tzachas who was intent in destroying the Byzantine Empire and killing its emperor. In 1092, Tzachas allied with the Pechenegs whose army Alexios I destroyed in the previous year and even proclaimed himself Basileus or “Byzantine emperor” behind Alexios I’s back. Alexios I then when finding out sent an army to Lesbos where Tzachas held himself in and after a 3-month siege, Tzachas surrendered Lesbos and returned to Smyrna. In 1093 however, Alexios I could not manage keeping Tzachas alive so he had the sultan of the Seljuk Empire Kilij Arslan I, Tzachas’ son-in-law invite Tzachas for a dinner in which after it finished, Kilij Arslan killed Tzachas himself and Smyrna was returned to the empire. Also, in 1093 2 governors simultaneously rebelled against Alexios I which were Karykes the governor of Crete and Rhapsomates the governor of Cyprus both declaring Cyprus and Crete independent. Alexios I however sent a fleet with soldiers to hunt down the rebel governors but in both places different outcomes happened. In Crete, as news of the imperial fleet arriving spread, a counter-coup loyal to the emperor killed Karykes and in Cyprus as the imperial fleet arrived, Rhapsomates’ army was defeated making him flee to a church where he was captured but what happened to him afterwards is unknown.

 

Nikephoros Diogenes (1094)- When Alexios I came to power in 1081, he released Romanos IV’s now grown sons Nikephoros and Leo Diogenes from the monastery as well as Michael VII’s son Constantine, adopting them, and raising them as if they were his own sons. Leo however died in 1087 in a battle against the Pechenegs and after Karykes’ rebellion in Crete was defeated in 1093, Alexios I made Nikephoros governor of Crete. In 1094 as Nikephoros was back in the palace in Constantinople, he suddenly plotted to kill Alexios I together with the former empress and the co-emperor Constantine’s mother Maria of Alania, Alexios I’s brother Adrianos, and brother-in-law Michael Taronites and Nikephoros’ reason being that he was a purple-born being born while his father Romanos IV was emperor while Alexios despite coming from nobility and being the nephew of the emperor Isaac I Komnenos was not purple-born. Nikephoros at his first attempt to kill the emperor failed as when he tried to do it, a servant was beside Alexios fanning the mosquitoes away and the second time, a guard caught Nikephoros red-handed holding a sword before Alexios knew about it. Alexios being suspicious asked his brother Adrianos to reveal what happened but being part of the conspiracy, Adrianos said he did not know anything about it so instead Alexios had Nikephoros arrested and tortured and only there did Nikephoros confess his crime and as a punishment he was blinded and forced to retire to Crete while Adrianos disappeared from history and Michael Taronites was only spared when his wife, Alexios’ sister Maria intervened.

 

Theodore Gabras (1096-1098)- Alexios I would be one of the most remembered Byzantine emperors as he defeated the Pechenegs in 1091 and managed to reclaim most of what was lost in Asia Minor to the Seljuks with the help of the First Crusade. However, not all of Asia Minor was happy with his rule as in the northeastern corner of it in the region known as Chaldia or Pontus, its governor Theodore Gabras in 1096 declared his region semi-autonomous from the rule of the emperor until Alexios I managed to take back some of Theodore’s lands in 1098. Theodore though having a semi-independent province was attacked by the armies of the Danishmend Turks, a division of the Seljuks settling in Northeast Asia Minor who managed to capture and kill him in 1099, although Theodore’s son Constantine succeeded him as the semi-autonomous governor of Pontus.

Michael Anemas (1105)- In 1105, a Byzantine senator named Michael Anemas together with his brothers and another senator named Solomon plotted against Alexios I with Michael proclaiming himself emperor but soon enough, Alexios discovered the plot and had Michael and his conspirators imprisoned in a new prison complex Alexios built beside the imperial palace. This prison complex would be known as the Prison of Anemas, named after Michael Anemas who was its first prisoner.

 

Constantine Gabras (1126-1140)- Alexios I ruled till his death in 1118 wherein he was succeeded by his son John II Komnenos and there wouldn’t be any usurper until 1126 and this would be Constantine Gabras, the son of the former semi-autonomous governor of Chaldia Theodore Gabras. In 1126, Constantine declared himself the independent ruler of his own state in the region at the northeast corner of Asia Minor by refusing to follow orders of the emperor. John II who was busy fighting wars against the Turks in Asia Minor was only able to deal with the issue of Constantine Gabras in 1140 when fighting against the Danishmend Turks who were in northeastern Asia Minor. As John II and his forces moved to Chaldia, Constantine Gabras out of fear of being punished surrendered to the imperial authorities and began to continue taking orders from the emperor again.

 

Thoros II (1145-1169), Andronikos Komnenos (1154), and Alexios Axouch (1167)- At the end of the 11th century, Armenians from Byzantine territory escaping the Seljuk invasion established their own state in Cilicia (Southern Asia Minor) with Ruben as its first ruler in 1080. In 1137 however, the emperor John II Komnenos took back this Armenian state and re-established imperial control over the area thus imprisoning their ruler Leo I and his sons Thoros and Ruben in Constantinople. In 1143, John II died from a hunting accident in Cilicia and with his 2 eldest sons having died before him, he named his youngest son Manuel his heir and in 1145 with Manuel I Komnenos as the new Byzantine emperor, Thoros managed to escape from prison and returned to Cilicia re-establishing the independent Armenian state there with him as its ruler. Manuel I would make several military expeditions to take back Cilicia from Thoros but none succeeded and Thoros II continued ruling it until his death in 1169. Now in 1154, Manuel was faced with a conspiracy led by his cousin Andronikos Komnenos who plotted to overthrow Manuel with the support of the Hungarian king Geza II who proceeded to invade Byzantine territory. When Manuel discovered his cousin plotted and went as far as getting the Hungarians to invade, he had Andronikos imprisoned although Andronikos would escape some time later and travel around Europe and the Middle East to plot his revenge against his cousin as later on he would become emperor and do just that. In 1167, Manuel would face another person plotting to overthrow him, and this would be his grand-nephew Alexios Axuoch who decorated his palace in Constantinople with the victories of the Seljuk sultan over the Byzantines and was even involved in sorcery by conspiring with a Latin wizard to drug the empress Maria of Antioch to prevent her from having a son to secure Alexios’ position to take the throne. Manuel I however learned of Alexios’ plot to overthrow him and had Alexios sent to a monastery for life.

 

Andronikos Angelos (1183), Andronikos Lampardas (1183), Theodore Kantakouzenos (1184), and Isaac Komnenos (1184-1191)- Manuel I with his wife Empress Maria of Antioch were able to have a son and when Manuel I died in 1180, he was succeeded by this son Alexios II Komnenos who however was still a child so was under the regency of his mother but in 1182, Manuel’s cousin Andronikos returned to have his revenge with the support of a massive mob of Byzantine Greeks in Constantinople. Andronikos first had the mob massacre thousands of Italians inhabitants in the capital and afterwards imprisoned and executed the empress then in 1183 strangled young Alexios II to death taking the throne as Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos. As emperor though, Andronikos I proved to be a tyrannical ruler having anyone loyal to his cousin Manuel I tortured and killed and because of this more generals would rebel against him trying to claim the throne. One of these generals was Andronikos Angelos, the grandson of Emperor Alexios I thus a cousin of Andronikos I who at first was sent in 1182 to quell Andronikos I’s rebellion but instead joined it but with Andronikos I as emperor in 1183, Andronikos Angelos led a plot with the grand admiral Kontostephanos to overthrow the emperor but when their plot was discovered the conspirators together with Kontostephanos were blinded while Andronikos Angelos with his sons fled to Crusader held Jerusalem where he would never return, although his sons Isaac and Alexios would later on become Byzantine emperors. Another general who rebelled in 1183 was Andronikos Lampardas who was loyal to Manuel I and his son Alexios II and when hearing of Alexios II’s death, he led his forces in rebellion against Andronikos I but ended up captured and blinded, soon enough killed as well. In 1184, the Byzantine governor of Prusa in Asia Minor, Theodore Kantakouzenos also declared rebellion against Andronikos I proclaiming himself emperor but before he carried out his plan to assassinate the emperor, he fell off his horse and when lying on the ground, the emperor’s guards beheaded him and sent his head to the emperor. Even Andronikos I’s relatives would come to rebel against him and one of them being Manuel I’s nephew Isaac Komnenos who in 1184 was released from prison and hired mercenaries sailing from Constantinople to Cyprus taking the island for himself and crowning himself emperor too. Now with Cyprus an independent state, Isaac as its emperor would however be just as brutal as Andronikos I and had terrorized the people of the island even stealing the people’s possessions and torturing them but in 1191 as the 3rd Crusade was launched 2 royals from Europe, Berengaria of Navarre and Joan of England were shipwrecked in Cyprus and taken as captives by Isaac but Joan’s sister the leader of the Crusade, King Richard I of England in retaliation sailed to Cyprus and conquered it on his way to Tyre. Richard I was able to capture Isaac and sent him to be imprisoned in Tripoli while Cyprus fell under the rule of the Crusaders.

 

Alexios Branas (1187), Theodore Mangaphas (1188-1189/ 1204-1206), Constantine Aspietes (1190), Fake Alexios II (1192), and Constantine Angelos (1193)- Andronikos I as emperor too would not last long as in 1185, the same people who put him in power 3 years ago turned on him supporting Isaac Angelos, the son of the general Andronikos Angelos who fled to Jerusalem never to return, but his son Isaac did and after getting a prophecy that he would be emperor, Andronikos I had him arrested to be executed but Isaac escaped his house and killed the agent sent to arrest him, then gathered the people in rebellion against the emperor. The people then seized Andronikos I and beat him to death in public while Isaac II was proclaimed emperor but as emperor he was not secure in the throne as first an uprising in Bulgaria ended up declaring Bulgaria independent from the empire at the end of 1185 and in 1187, a Byzantine general named Alexios Branas who had just defeated a Norman invasion was sent to defeat the Bulgarian rebellion but instead switched sides and joined the Vlach-Bulgarian rebellion of the Asen brothers against the emperor. Isaac II however dealt with Alexios’ rebellion by sending his general Conrad of Montferrat to crush it and at the end, Alexios Branas was killed in battle and his rebellion defeated though the Bulgarians would still remain a threat. Now in 1188, the Byzantine governor of Philadelphia in Asia Minor Theodore Mangaphas declared himself emperor to challenge Isaac II but Isaac II threatened to remove him from his position so Theodore gave up his claim for the throne to keep his title as governor although years later he would rebel again after Isaac II’s death. In 1190, as Isaac II was continuing to crush the Bulgarian rebellion, he sent his general Constantine Aspietes to do it but instead Constantine bribed his troops to proclaim him emperor and when discovering this, Isaac II removed him from command and had him blinded. With 3 usurpers defeated, Isaac II was still not yet secure on his throne as in 1192, a pretender in Asia Minor came out of nowhere claiming to be the former emperor Alexios II Komnenos reborn and this pretender got the support of the Seljuk sultan Kilij Arslan II and attacked Phrygia but at the end, fake Alexios II was assassinated by a priest sent by Isaac II. In 1193, the Bulgarian rebellion was close to being finished off by Isaac II’s cousin Constantine Angelos but because of his victories, his troops declared him emperor but his officers loyal to the emperor handed him over to Constantinople where Isaac II had Constantine blinded.

 

Ivanko of Bulgaria (1198-1200), John Komnenos (1201), Michael Angelos (1200-1201), and Leo Sgouros (1201-1208)- Isaac II was never secure in his throne till the end as in 1195, his older brother Alexios who he put all his trust in betrayed him with the support of the army and while absent on a hunt, Alexios in the army camp had the soldiers proclaim him emperor and as Isaac returned, Alexios arrested, blinded, and imprisoned him, thus Alexios III Angelos became emperor. Alexios III in 1197 then married off his granddaughter Theodora to the Bulgarian usurper, the Vlach Ivanko who had killed the Bulgarian ruler Ivan Asen I however when in the service of the Byzantines, Ivanko turned against the emperor with the army he commanded in 1198 but in 1200, Alexios III’s sons-in-law Alexios Palaiologos and Theodore Laskaris defeated and captured Invanko putting him in prison. In 1201 however, John Komnenos the Fat a surviving member of the Komnenos family suddenly had himself crowned emperor by a monk in the Hagia Sophia and gathered a small army to march on the imperial palace to overthrow Alexios III but Alexios III’s forces captured and beheaded John. Also in 1200, Alexios III’s cousin Michael Angelos who was the governor of a Theme in Asia Minor rose up against his cousin and proclaimed himself emperor but the next year (1201), the emperor’s forces defeated him forcing him to flee to the Seljuks, although in 1205 he would come back and establish his own independent state in Epirus. Meanwhile also in 1201 in the region of Argos in Greece, its Byzantine governor Leo Sgouros declared it an independent state from the empire with him as its ruler while Alexios III did nothing about it leaving Leo to expand his territory in Southern Greece but in 1204, the empire fell to the Crusaders and in 1208 as the Crusaders occupied Greece, they confronted Leo and his forces defeating them but Leo committed suicide to avoid capture and the rest of Greece fell to Crusader rule.

 

Leo Gabalas (1203-1226), Nikolaos Kanabos (1204), and Constantine Laskaris (1204-1205)- In 1203, Alexios III would be overthrown when his nephew Alexios IV Angelos, son of Isaac II arrived in Constantinople with the army of the 4th Crusade forcing Alexios III to flee and Isaac II despite being blind to return to power ruling with his son. When hearing Alexios III was deposed, the Byzantine governor of Rhodes Leo Gabalas declared Rhodes independent with him as its ruler and with the empire falling to the Crusaders in 1204, Rhodes remained independent but when the new Byzantine Empire of Nicaea formed in Asia Minor, Leo surrendered to it in 1226 but was still kept as governor of Rhodes until his death in 1239. Back in Constantinople, Isaac II and Alexios IV after only being in power for a few months, the people, senate, and Church rose up against the co-emperors for actually giving in to the Crusaders’ demands which included melting religious icons to make them into coins to pay off the Crusaders. The people rising up against the co-emperors proclaimed the young noble Nikolaos Kanabos as emperor against his will but some days later, the court secretary deposed and executed both Isaac II and Alexios IV and became Emperor Alexios V. Kanabos not wanting to accept the title, hid himself in the Hagia Sophia but with Alexios V as the new emperor, he had Kanabos dragged out and beheaded in the Hagia Sophia’s marble steps. Just 3 months after Alexios V came to power, the Crusader army camped outside the city wanting their pay just stormed in, stole all the wealth, and killed everyone they saw while the defending army was at the point of giving up and Alexios V himself fled. However, as the Crusaders sacked the city, a large number of citizens, soldiers, and the Varangian Guards sought refuge in the Hagia Sophia where they elected a noble named Constantine Laskaris as emperor who commanded what left of the Byzantine people to make a last stand against the Crusaders but as the army was wiped out, Constantine fled the city to Asia Minor while Constantinople fell under the rule of the new Latin Empire. Constantine is only mentioned again in 1205 when he led an army against the Crusaders invading Asia Minor where they defeated the Byzantines and captured Constantine but his younger brother Theodore, the former emperor Alexios III’s son-in-law took his brother’s claim as emperor and made himself Emperor of Nicaea founding the Laskaris Dynasty restoring Byzantium. Constantine Laskaris though is considered a legitimate Byzantine emperor by some sources, but there is no evidence that he was actually crowned but if he were, he would have actually been Constantine XI but as of now it is unclear if Constantine Laskaris was crowned so the title of “XI” goes to Byzantium’s last emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos (r. 1449-1453).

 

Sabas Asidenos (1204-1206), David Komnenos (1204-1207), Theodore Branas (1205-1206)- Following the fall of Constantinople to the 4th Crusade in 1204, what was left of the empire fell into chaos with many unsure of what was to happen began declaring their own separate states such as Alexios and David Komnenos, the grandsons of the former Byzantine emperor Andronikos I who established the Empire of Trebizond in 1204, Michael I Angelos who established the Despotate of Epirus in 1205, and Theodore I Laskaris who established the Empire of Nicaea which would be the Byzantine Empire in exile. However, there were other generals too unaware of what was to happen that established their own states such as Sabas Asidenos from Asia Minor who established his own independent state there in the area of the Meander River with him as its ruler although in 1206 once Theodore I Laskaris formed the Empire of Nicaea, Sabas surrendered his claim and his lands to it. As for the Komnenos brothers, Alexios took Trebizond and David took the region of Paphlagonia along the Black Sea which was originally part of Theodore Laskaris’ territory and in 1207 with Theodore pressuring David to give up his territory there, David made an alliance with the Latin Empire that took over Constantinople even acknowledging the Latins’ rule over his lands. Another story was that of the Byzantine general in Adrianople named Theodore Branas in 1205, the son of the usurper Alexios Branas who tried to take the throne from Isaac II in 1187. With the Byzantines losing Constantinople, Theodore Branas in 1205 made Adrianople its separate state but in 1206 he had to surrender it to the Latin Empire in order to protect it from the ambitions of the Bulgarian ruler Kaloyan who had previously defeated the Latins in battle, though Branas was allowed to live.

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Map of the aftermath of the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Latins, 1204

Watch this to learn more about the aftermath of 1204 (from Eastern Roman History).

 

Isaac and Alexios Laskaris (1224), Theodore Komnenos Doukas (1215-1230), Manuel Komnenos Doukas (1230-1237), and John Komnenos Doukas (1237-1242)- By the time Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea died in 1221, he left behind a Byzantine state that was strong enough but there was a problem in the succession as he had no son so instead, in 1222 his son-in-law the general John Doukas Vatatzes came to power as Emperor John III though Theodore I’s younger brothers Isaac and Alexios were displeased with it and fled to Latin held Constantinople where they got the support of the Latin emperor Robert Courtenay and when gathering an army in 1224, they marched to Nicaea to confront John III, however John III being a skilled general defeated the Latin forces and the brothers; Isaac and Alexios were then captured and blinded and the Latins pushed out of Asia Minor. Meanwhile in the separatist state of Epirus in Western Greece, its founder Michael I Angelos was assassinated in 1215 by his half-brother Theodore Komnenos Doukas who took over Epirus and in 1224 he captured Thessalonica from the Latins and declared himself Byzantine emperor challenging John III but in 1230 he was defeated by the Bulgarian forces and taken prisoner by the Bulgarian ruler Ivan Asen II who blinded him. Though Theodore was captured and brought to Bulgaria, his brother Manuel Komnenos Doukas took his place as emperor but serving as a powerless vassal of the Bulgarians until he was overthrown in 1237 by his brother Theodore who returned but being blind, Theodore installed his son John Komnenos Doukas as emperor in Thessalonica and Manuel fled to Thessaly making himself its ruler. John Komnenos Doukas however did not last long enough as in 1242 John III of Nicaea threatened to invade Thessalonica and out of fear of being killed, John Komnenos Doukas gave up his title of emperor in exchange for the title of Despot or “lord” which he held until his death in 1244 and was succeeded by his brother Demetrios who in 1246 lost Thessalonica when John III absorbed it into the Empire of Nicaea.

 

John Doukas of Thessaly (1280-1282)- Fast-forward to 1261, the Empire of Nicaea has finally reclaimed Constantinople ending the 57-year rule of the Latin Empire thus restoring the Byzantine Empire with Michael VIII Palaiologos becoming its emperor after deposing and blinding John III Doukas Vatatzes’ grandson, the boy emperor John IV Laskaris. Though the Byzantine Empire had Constantinople again, Thessaly in mainland Greece was its own state but under the Despotate of Epirus and as Michael VIII ruled the empire, a former ally of the emperor John Doukas ruled Thessaly beginning 1268. Michael VIII although ended up supporting the unity of the Byzantine and Latin Churches and began persecuting those who opposed the union so John Doukas being against Michael VIII’s unionist policies welcomed those who were escaping from Michael VIII’s rule. In 1280, John Doukas in opposition to Michael VIII declared himself Byzantine emperor as a defender of Orthodoxy making Michael VIII retaliate by having his armies conquer Thessaly which failed as John Doukas made himself an ally with Michael VIII’s enemies including the French king of Sicily Charles I of Anjou. Also, in 1280, Michael VIII sent an army to invade Thessaly but instead they joined forces with John Doukas making Michael VIII even more angry that he imprisoned the commanders of the army he sent and replaced them with new ones. In 1282 again, Michael planned another invasion of Thessaly but died in a farm in Thrace before he could prepare it. With Michael VIII dead, his son and successor Andronikos II cancelled his father’s Church Union making John Doukas give up his claim as emperor and making peace again with the empire; he then died in 1289.

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The Byzantine Empire after 1261 (yellow), Epirus and Thessaly (red)

 

Honorable Mention: Charles I of Anjou- Just as Michael VIII took back Constantinople for the Byzantines in 1261, Charles I of Anjou of the Capetian Dynasty, a French royal and brother of King Louis IX of France took over Sicily in 1266 to set it up as his base to invade the Byzantine Empire. With the Latin Empire destroyed, Charles of Anjou used this as a reason to invade Byzantium in order to restore it to the rule of the Latins and true enough he did have the deposed Latin emperor Baldwin II with him. Charles of Anjou’s reason to invade however was to build up a Mediterranean empire and bring it under French dominance as at this point, France was the leading power of Europe. Michael VIII saw Charles as a mortal enemy but fought back by submitting his empire to the pope’s authority although Charles of Anjou was supported by the pope. In 1281, Charles of Anjou attempted to invade Byzantium but his army was defeated by the Byzantines in Albania and in 1282, Michael VIII found an ally in the king of Aragon Peter III who he sent to invade Sicily and at the same time too, Michael VIII bribed off local lords in Sicily to start a rebellion which would be known as the Sicilian Vespers. At the end of 1282, the rebels with the help of Aragon drove away Charles’ forces from Sicily making Sicily now under Aragon. Charles of Anjou died in Naples in 1285 failing to achieve his biggest dream which was conquering the Byzantine Empire, but if he did, he would have been a Byzantine emperor as well except with no trace of Byzantine blood and Byzantium itself would completely fall into the rule of Western Latins once again, if not for good.   

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Possessions of Charles I of Anjou (blue) 

 

Constantine Palaiologos (1292)- When Michael VIII died unexpectedly in a farm in Thrace in December of 1282, his son Andronikos II immediately succeeded him after burying his father in an unmarked grave as the Church in Constantinople denied Michael VIII a proper burial for signing the Church Union with the pope. Other than Andronikos II, Michael VIII with his wife Empress Theodora had another son, Constantine who was a purple-born child being born back in the purple room of Constantinople’s imperial palace in 1261 just a month after his father took back the city from the Latins but Andronikos being the eldest son succeeded his father despite being born back in Nicaea in 1259 and not in the purple room. In 1292, Constantine who then a powerful general rebelled against his brother claiming he is the rightful ruler being the Porphyrogennetos as he was born in the purple room but Constantine was soon enough reported by some nobles to his brother but since Andronikos and Constantine were close to each other, Andronikos only punished him by sentencing him to be in a monastery for life, though Constantine has one legacy up to this day which is a whole palace in Constantinople still standing which is named after him known as the “Palace of the Porphyrogennetos” or “Palace of the Purple-Born”.

 

Alexios Philanthropenos (1295) and John Drimys (1305)- In 1295 as Andronikos II’s Byzantine army campaigned against the Turks, the general Alexios Philanthropenos scored some victories against the Turks making his troops who began to resent the rule and taxations of Andronikos II to proclaim him emperor but soldiers loyal to the emperor took him to Constantinople as a prisoner and there Andronikos II had him blinded. 10 years later, in 1305 a mysterious priest named John Drimys coming from the west, possibly from Thessaly or Epirus came to Constantinople and with the support of some priests and monks declared himself emperor against Andronikos II claiming to be a descendant of the Laskaris family that ruled Nicaea years ago until Michael VIII overthrew them in 1261. When Andronikos II uncovered the plot, he had John Drimys and his men arrested and imprisoned.

Watch this to learn more about the gradual loss of Byzantine Asia Minor (from Eastern Roman History).

 

Michael IX Palaiologos (1295-1320)- By the time Andronikos II became emperor in 1282 he already had a son Michael who was named after his grandfather the emperor Michael VIII who was already named co-emperor with his father by his grandfather. In 1295, Andronikos II made his son Michael his co-emperor in full imperial style using the name Michael IX and as co-emperor he would best be remembered for leading an army against the new power of the Ottomans in 1302 and in 1305, he was charged with dealing with the rebellious Catalan Company his father had hired. After Michael IX ordered the assassination of the Catalan soldiers’ general Roger de Flor in 1305, the Catalans out of revenge attacked and severely wounded him at the Battle of Apros shortly after. Michael IX barely came out alive but lived until 1320 in semi-retirement dying after hearing of his son Manuel’s death by the hands of assassins who mistook him for Michael’s other son Andronikos. Michael IX would be the only ruler of the Palaiologos Dynasty to predecease his father and although he may not appear in the list of Byzantine emperors, Michael IX is still considered one but he never got to rule alone, rather always with his father Andronikos II.

 

Syrgiannes Palaiologos (1333-1334)- Following the death of Michael IX and his son Manuel in 1320, Andronikos II hearing of his son and grandson’s death blamed it all on his eldest grandson Andronikos who in 1321 launched a civil war to overthrow his grandfather and supporting him was the Bulgarian Empire, and 2 young nobles which was his close friend John Kantakouzenos and Michael VIII’s grand-nephew Syrgiannes Palaiologos whose father was a Cuman that migrated to the empire. The side of the young Andronikos succeeded and overthrew the old emperor Andronikos II by force in 1328 making the grandson become Emperor Andronikos III while Andronikos II died in a monastery in 1332. Syrgiannes was then made governor of Thessalonica but in 1333, Andronikos III’s mother Rita of Armenia adopted Syrgiannes in rebellion against her son making the emperor suspect him of plotting so in return, Syrgiannes fled to Serbia to the court of its king Stefan IV Dusan who gave him a large army which Syrgiannes led to invade the empire with his claim as emperor. Syrgiannes’ and the emperor’s forces met in battle but Syrgiannes was lured away at one point and killed and after his death, Andronikos III negotiated with the Serbians making them return to Serbia as they had nothing to claim in Byzantium anymore.

 

Honorable Mention: Stefan IV Dusan of Serbia (1346-1355)- With the absence of Byzantium between 1204 and 1261 due to the Crusades, this gave the opportunity for the small kingdom of Serbia in the Balkans to expand and by the 14th century it had grown larger especially when the ambitious ruler Stefan Uros IV Dusan also known as “Dusan the Mighty” became its king in 1331. Dusan had a dream which was to conquer and rebuild the dying Byzantine Empire to its former glory with him as its emperor despite being a Serbian. In 1341, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III suddenly died and this created a civil war between his young son John V supported by his mother Anna of Savoy and Andronikos III’s close friend and general John Kantakouzenos and over in Serbia, Dusan used this civil war to his advantage in conquering Byzantium. In 1346, Dusan was crowned emperor or “tsar” in Skopje with the title “Emperor of the Serbs and Romans” which was equivalent to Byzantine emperor while in 1347, John Kantakouzenos won the Byzantine civil war becoming Byzantine emperor while Black Death arrived to kill thousands in Byzantium but leaving Serbia less affected. Now using the Black Death to his advantage, Dusan conquered Epirus, Thessaly, and most of Greece all the way down to the Gulf of Corinth. Though not exactly a Byzantine emperor, Dusan behaved in all ways like one and like the influential 6th century Byzantine emperor Justinian I, Dusan made his own law code and though being a Serbian, he could have become Byzantine emperor if he took Constantinople and renamed his Serbian Empire to the Byzantine Empire and under him, Byzantium would have been strong enough again to the point of beating the Ottomans though the only difference the Byzantium under Dusan would have is that the Byzantine world would shift from a Greek power to a Serbian power just how Byzantium centuries ago shifted from a Roman to a Greek power. Dusan died in 1355 with his empire never recovering again.

 

Nikephoros II Orsini (1339-1340/ 1356-1359)- In 1337, the breakaway Byzantine rebel state of Epirus was conquered and annexed back to the empire by Andronikos III but in 1339, Epirus’ young ruler Nikephoros II Orsini refused to be a vassal and wanted to rule independently so he did until the emperor’s army led by John Kantakouzenos defeated him in 1340 forcing him into exile. In the meantime, Epirus shifted hands from the Byzantines to the Serbians but after the Serbian emperor Stefan IV Dusan died in 1355, Nikephoros returned from exile and made himself ruler of Epirus again challenging both the new Serbian emperor and Dusan IV’s son Stefan Uros V and the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos who just came back to power since 1354 and when taking back Epirus in 1356, Nikephoros II declared himself Emperor of the Serbs and Romans as well. Nikephoros however did not last long enough as in 1359 when fighting a battle against Albanian rebels, he was defeated and killed.

 

Matthew Kantakouzenos (1353-1357)- In the long and bloody Byzantine civil war between 1341 and 1347 between John V and John Kantakouzenos, Kantakouzenos won and deposed John V who although kept his title as co-emperor but Kantakouzenos would rule as the senior emperor John VI giving his son Matthew control of some parts of Thrace. In 1353, John V wanting to come back to power declared another civil war on John VI who was his father-in-law by then and in 1354 while Matthew was fighting the Serbians, John VI was overthrown by John V and sent to a monastery while the Serbians captured Matthew and delivered him back to John V. Matthew when returned was imprisoned in Lesbos by John V under the watch of John V’s new ally, the Genoese pirate Francesco Gattilusio who was given Lesbos in exchange for helping John V return to power. When imprisoned, Matthew finally renounced his claim as emperor in 1357 after being forced by John V and for doing it, Matthew was spared and unharmed and even sent to the Morea in Southern Greece to be its governor which he was until his death in 1383.

 

John VII Palaiologos (1390/ 1399-1403)- As emperor John V Palaiologos would rule a long and miserable reign as in 1373 his son Andronikos rebelled against him and was imprisoned with his wife Keratsa-Maria of Bulgaria and son John but in 1376 they were released and Andronikos IV became emperor putting his father and brothers in the same prison he was in. As the new emperor for a while, Andronikos IV made his young son John his co-emperor but in 1379, John V with his other son Manuel took the throne back though Andronikos IV and his son were spared and given control of Constantinople’s suburb of Selymbria and still holding the imperial title. In 1385, Andronikos IV died and his son John succeeded the claim to the throne who in 1390 used this claim to suddenly depose his grandfather John V again in a palace coup and be crowned Emperor John VII who was supported by the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I. Just after 5 months in power, John V came back to the throne again with his son Manuel now named his heir and also with the help of the Republic of Venice making John VII flee to the court of the Ottoman sultan who then restored John VII to his father’s domain of Selymbria. John V though would only rule for a few months dying in early 1391 and succeeded by his intended heir Manuel II who would reconcile with his nephew John VII even naming him his intended heir as Manuel had not married and had children yet. By 1399, the Ottomans had blockaded and laid siege to Constantinople making Manuel II travel to Europe to seek aid and in his absence, he made John VII protector of the city but without the title of emperor and as protector he did his job well and thankfully the city did not fall to the Ottomans as in 1402, the sultan Bayezid I had to abandon the siege when the Turco-Mongol emperor Timur invaded Asia Minor and here Bayezid I was defeated and captured at Ankara being brought as a prisoner to Timur’s capital of Samarkand leaving the Ottoman Empire ruined. When Manuel II returned in 1403, John VII returned his power and in return, he was allowed to retire to Thessalonica still keeping his imperial title and even naming his infant son Andronikos V co-emperor in 1403. John VII died in 1408, a year after his son died.

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Final days of the Byzantine Empire (purple), 1450