Military Sketches, Classical Roman Age (Individuals) part 2

Well, here’s another set of sketches of soldiers and historical designs and symbols continuing the previous one, about Renaissance 16th-17th century figures, here’s another individual sketches set. This time, it is all on military figures with their country’s symbol and designs as well as descriptions from the Classical Age in Ancient times, this time going backwards in time. Here are 7 individual sketches, one ancient rimes nation in it with a military figure as a sample unit of their army to visualize how the soldiers of each ancient kingdom or empire looked different from each other, rather than the sample soldier, there is the country’s seal in each of the 7, and a cultural design in each of based on the country. Each of the 7 sheets have an ancient kingdom, empire, or confederation in each from all over the known world in the ancient Classical days from 300BC-200AD; Rome, Macedonia (Greece), Parthia, Carthage, Egypt, Gaul, and Britain; basically in the time of the Romans. This is all basically set in Roman times, with Rome leading, however it is not all about Rome but descriptions of the powers of that time. The descriptions of each ancient kingdom or empire is widely mentioned rather than the description of the soldier. In particular, these sample soldier units and descriptions are based on each of the factions of the Total War game series, Rome Total War II, which I based it on inspired by the game I have played before…. (7 sketches drawn last March-April 2014, posted only now)

I. Rome- The Roman Republic/ Roman Empire, 300BC-200AD; “strength, honor, duty”

Rome- starting as a small city state in Italy, through time the power ruling the world in the Mediterranean, Europe, west Asia, and North Africa all in one empire based in Rome. Throughout the years, having wars defending themselves from outsider enemies leading them to conquer and expand through time defeating their enemies from nearby to distant lands, grew powerful through many years and centuries by military strength and victory. The republic turned full-time empire, known for political skills and military strength.

The Roman faction
The Roman faction

The Romans- Culture type: Roman (Latin), from Italy; Origins/ base: Rome, Italy (with a few Greek origins); System: Republican(500BC-30BC)/ Imperial(30BC-300AD); Skills: Building, Politics, military conquest and power, excellent armies.

Sample Soldier unit- Legionary, Praetorian cohort forces, or special forces. army class; high-ranked guardsman soldier or praetorian, blue color coded; weapons used are sword (gladius), dagger (pugio), javelin (pilum), and legionnaire’s heavy defense shield for shield-wall formation; armor used are heavy armor sets of Roman legionnaire chest-armor, leg protection, praetorian soldier’s helmet, and blue cape; in battle a heavy armed defensive soldier.

Others: Rome’s official seal of the eagle and wreath with the symbol SPQR, with the Roman helmet, sword, and shield, above the Roman imperial gold pattern and red background.

II. Macedonia- The Macedonian Greek Empire, 400-140BC; “glory, order, power”

Macedonia (Greece)- First the several Greek city states of Athens, Sparta, Corinth etc. then the Greek kingdom of Macedonia builds up to be the leading Greek power in a short period of time conquering all the lands of the east but lasting shortly too. Their world power empire then was divided into 3, Macedonia, Seleucid Empire, and Ptolemaic Egypt Empire minimizing the real power of Macedonia, which became one of the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great’s empire which he built earlier but divided to 3, Macedonia did not grow again to be a world power but lost its power and strength after time. When becoming smaller and weaker, the Macedonian kingdom lost Illyria and Greece but also allied with them but afterwards all of Macedonia and the nearby lands of Illyria, Thrace, and Greece were taken over by the growing empire of the Romans.

The Macedonian faction
The Macedonian faction

The Macedonians/ Greeks- Culture type: completely Greek; Origins/ base: Macedonia, kingdom in Greece; System: Republican (sort of democracy) however more of monarchy ruling the Macedonian kingdom/ empire (350-140BC); Skills: military power and conquest, having a strong army and navy having elephants, hoplites, heavy warships; secondary skills are alliances, diplomacy, with trade and commerce.

Sample Soldier unit- Greek Hoplite, or special forces infantry; type of soldier, special forces of the ancient Greeks (pike-man or spear-man); a high-ranked soldier unit in the Macedonian Greek army; weapon choices of Greek spear, sword, dagger, and hoplite’s round shield; armor used includes Greek hoplite cuirass armor, hoplite helmet, and protection for arms and legs; in battle, the close-combat melee warrior.

Others: The official Macedonian Empire seal of the sun or Apollo, the Spartan Greek shield and helmet, and above the pattern of the Greek chain.

III. Egypt- The Ptolemaic Egyptian Empire, 300-30BC; “legacy, independence, power”

The new Egyptian Empire- Egypt was once a powerful kingdom way back in the ancient days, however destroyed by the Persian Empire, but restored after Macedonian conquest. Egypt under the short Macedonian Empire became a succession kingdom to Macedonia once the empire was divided in 3; the other 2, Macedonian and Seleucid Empire, Egypt was the 3rd becoming the Ptolemaic Empire, it grew even more powerful and progressive than Macedonia. This restored Egyptian empire had a mix of both Greek and ancient Egyptian cultures, but more of Greek as it came directly from Macedonia, but having great progress. The Egyptians having a strong army made of Greek battle styles and units but a stronger navy as it is located in the south-east of the Mediterranean, based in Alexandria. It was in full power with the navy and trade but later on, it ended up being defeated and fully taken over by Rome.

The Egyptian faction
The Egyptian faction

The Ptolemaic Egyptians- Culture type: Greek (formerly Egyptian but not existing); Origins/ base: Egypt, Macedonia; System: kingdom/ empire (300-30BC); Skills: Naval power with powerful navy, outstanding army of Greek skills, hoplites, skirmishers, elephants, cataphract cavalry; skills also include building, shipping, and trade.

Sample Soldier unit- Egyptian light infantry peltast; soldier type, skirmisher javelin men, or missile infantry, middle-ranked soldier; weapon choices of curved sword, skirmisher light shield, throwing javelins set; armor used include Egyptian light armor, skirmisher light helmet, and protection for arms and legs; in battle, a range fighter, missile throwing.

Others: The Ptolemaic Egypt empire’s official seal of the eagle and blue background, an Greek-Egyptian helmet, a light shield, above the traditional Egyptian pattern.

IV. Parthia- The Parthian Empire from the east, 200BC-200AD; “tolerance, justice, profit”

The Parthian/ Persian Empire- Parthia was once before a small province within the Persian Empire in the east then ruled by the Seleucid Empire, the other succession kingdom to Macedonia. Parthia then rose up and fought the Seleucid Empire for their independence and crushed the Seleucid Empire beginning to expand Parthian territory controlling a big part of the east (Parthia, Persia, Babylon, and Syria. Parthia grew to the leading power in the east by conquests and by their wealth and riches which they have a lot of. Was later, the rival of the world power Roman Empire that bordered it in terms of wealth and power, fought wars after each other with Rome, though Rome never conquered them or Parthia never conquered the Romans. Parthia though has eastern origins and traditions but has a mix of Greek and eastern cultures as they tolerated all cultures; they remained dominant in power and Rome never conquered them.

The Parthian faction
The Parthian faction

The Parthians- Culture type: Eastern; Origins/ base: Parthia, Persia; System: kingdom/ empire (200BC-200AD); Skills: military conquest and power, having different types of units like cataphract units, spear-men, cataphract cavalry, cavalry archers, camel cavalry; also known for gold and wealth, trade, farming, and hunting.

Sample Soldier Unit- Parthian Cataphract cavalry; soldier type, heavy armed cavalry (though seen without horse), both archer and special forces with multi-weaponry, a high-ranking special force cavalry soldier; weapon choices of Persian sword, rectangular shield, cavalry spear, with a bow and arrows too; armor used includes Parthian cataphract heavy armor with chain-mail, heavy helmet covering face, with cavalry soldier’s cape; in battle, the type that uses any battle style especially in cavalry, both close-combat, spearing, and archery

Others: The Parthian empire’s official seal of the Persian lion, a Persian sword and shield, and above the Persian ornate pattern

V. Carthage- The Carthaginian Republic, 500-140BC; “democracy, commerce, faith”

The Carthaginian Republic- Carthage is based in the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, where Tunisia is today, however Carthage’s origins are from Phoenicia; started out as a Phoenician-Greek colony but grew to power in the Mediterranean.Carthage, just like Rome was a republic not a monarchy, it grew by naval power and strength; it conquered lands around it in the Mediterranean, all over North Africa, Spain, and parts of Italy with their powerful navy but also by trade. Carthage took trade and business more seriously than war and especially their ships, though their empire expanded by shipping and military conquests using Greek army units and elephants. Soon became Rome’s imperial rival and fought the series of the Punic Wars with Rome, at the end was defeated and destroyed by the Romans. Known for commerce, trade, and battle strategies.

The Carthaginian faction
The Carthaginian faction

The Carthaginians- Culture type: Phoenician (Greek-like race); Origins/ base: Carthage, North Africa (originally from Phoenicia; System: Republic (Democracy), around 800Bc-146BC; Skills: navy, shipping, trade, businesses, and military conquest and strategies using elephants, hoplites, skirmishers in battle.

Sample Soldier unit- Carthaginian Hoplite (Legionnaire); soldier type, light infantry skirmisher, middle-ranking hybrid hoplites using skirmishing weapons instead of spear; weapon choices of curved sword, hoplite skirmisher light shield, and set of javelins; armor used is light leather protection armor, over chain-mail, skirmisher helmet, and arm and leg pads, with cape; in battle, a range fighter or skirmisher, uses throwing skills

Others: The official seal of the Carthaginian Republic (from Rome Total War II) using a Phoenician symbol, below a Carthaginian helmet, and above a pattern of waves representing the sea, what Carthage has and controls.

VI. Gaul- The Gallic Tribes Confederacy, ?800BC-50BC; “belief, dignity, power”

The Gaul Confederacy- Gaul was not one kingdom or empire but a set of tribes in the same area, modern day France ruled by different kings and warlord/ generals growing to a powerful confederacy of the tribes that advanced towards areas around it and attacked them. Gaul however is not a common barbaric state but a more advanced and powerful one with full Celtic origins but with traces of Greek and Roman origins too making them the most advances and sophisticated tribes of the part of Europe, they are actually just a little bit more backwards version of the early Romans and people in Italy. The Gauls are strong in battle and have armies with strategies but some times disorderly but having strong soldiers and weapons, with that they ended up having conquests and wars with Rome, Spain, going as far as Carthage, even to Greece by massive invasions; they have skills in crafting, farming, and cavalry rather than being savage tribes. The Gauls fought many wars with the Romans since 200BC and lost some land to them, Gaul was fully conquered by Roman general Julius Caesar and the Romans by 50BC, the Gauls remained and afterwards had a powerful alliance with Rome.

The Gallic faction
The Gallic faction

The Gauls- Culture Type: Barbarian (not completely with Greek and Roman traces); Origins/ base: Gaul (France), partly from Italy and Aegean Greece; System: Feudal, ruled by chieftains and warlords (?800-50BC); Skills: war and conquest, military strength and invasions, crafting, cavalry, farming, trade.

Sample Soldier unit- Gallic Warrior, heavy infantry; melee fighting warrior, high-ranking in Gallic troops; weapon choices of heavy great-sword, Gallic shield, sometimes uses battle-axe; armor used are Gallic helmet, chain-mail armor, and Gallic green tunic and cape; in battle, a close-combat melee soldier.

Others: The Gallic tribes seal of the red wild boar and green background, a barbarian axe and shield, above the Gaul green and red pattern.

VII. Britain- The British (Celtic) tribes Confederacy, ?800BC-50AD; “iron, conquest pride”

The Celtic Confederacy- Britain back in the time of the Romans, before being conquered was not one kingdom or empire but an island made of several barbarian warrior tribes. The Celtic or British tribes from Britannia are a confederation of tribes around the large island ruled by warlord chieftains and have a druid culture. The tribes, like the Iceni are brave, warlike, and strong warriors having an army of frenzied warriors and mostly infantry. As an iron age nation, the British Celts have strong skills in iron and crafting weaponry as well as survival and hunting skills. The British tribes later fought wars with Rome and until 40’s AD, they were conquered by the Romans under Emperor Claudius I, but remained British tribes but sometimes revolted against the Romans, soon the British Celts became Romanized.

The Briton faction
The Briton faction

The Britons- Culture type: Barbarian; Origins/base: the Island of Britain; System: Feudal, tribes ruled by warlords and chieftains; Skills: war, skirmishing and charging, iron smiting, crafting, hunting, warrior infantry with blue painted warriors and chariots, survival skills

Sample Soldier Unit- Celtic tribes warrior, heavy infantry melee and missile infantry (special forces); high-ranking warrior in British tribes; weapons used include javelins, Celtic patterned long-shield, barbarian short-sword, heavy battle-axe; armor used include chain-mail, Celtic sheets and fur (although not supposed to wear chain-mail or blue tunic but shirtless and just fur and sheets), Celtic warrior bronze helmet, blue cape, protections for arms and legs; in battle, a type for frenzied or shocked charging as it is high with blue war paint, melee fighting, and missile throwing infantry warrior.

Others: The Iceni British tribes official seal of a deer with blue background, Celtic war-axe with blue patterned shield and Celtic wool sheets, above a Celtic tribal pattern.

VIII. Germania- The German (Cherusci) tribes Confederacy, ?800BC-20AD“blood, nobility, courage” 

The Germanic tribes- These tribes from the dense woodlands of Germany, northeast of Gaul, the Cherusci in particular is a tribe part of many tribes found in Germany with similar languages and beliefs. The confederation of the barbarian German tribes are ruled by different warlords or war chiefs having fierce and warlike warriors, most skilled in ambush tactics. The German warriors are lightly armed only with few swords and axes with either round, hexagonal, or rectangular wooden shields and also barely armoured, some of them have chain-mail or sometimes just cloth or fur but they are masters in performing surprise attacks by throwing missiles or shooting arrows from above the trees or behind bushes, the warriors are also skilled in doing berserk charges against the enemy. The Germanic tribes live in thick forests beyond the Rhine river, east of Gaul, some have been easily conquered by the Romans in the many years of the German campaigns, sometimes it was impossible for the Romans to beat the Germans’ surprise attacks, and also some of the distant German tribes to the east have never been conquered by the Romans.

The Germanic faction
The Germanic faction

The Germanic tribes- Culture type: Barbarian; Origins/ base: the German woodlands; System: Feudal, tribes ruled by war chiefs; Skills: war, metalwork, hunting, ambush tactics (shock charge, skirmishing, berserk warriors)

Sample Soldier Unit- Germanic tribal berserk warrior (heavy infantry); melee berserk warrior, high ranking soldier in the tribal units; weapons used include berserkers’ war-axe, barbarian short sword, a dagger, and large wooden hexagonal shield; armour used includes animal skin (a bear) over a bronze helmet, chain mail shirt over red tunic, belts and and suspenders to carry weapons and shield, also German tribal pants and boots; in battle, a melee type warrior skilled in performing berserk shock charges at the enemy by striking with the axe first and close combat with the sword and shield.

Others: The Germanic Cherusci tribes official seal at the upper-right, in the lower-right the traditional Germanic tribes war0axes and a round shield, above a traditional Germanic tribal pattern.

This is all for now of my Rome Total War II inspired soldier sketches postcards, it was quite a history lesson of the others kingdoms and empires from the time of ancient Rome. Hope you’ve learned something after this long discussion though it may be interesting. Anyway, this another set of my military drawings postcards but this one had a bit more of description and detail of the ancient world, this is all for now, goodbye!

Published by The Byzantium Blogger

Powee Celdran, currently majors in Entrepreneurial Management, a Byzantine scholar and enthusiast, historical military sketch and bathroom mural artist, aspiring historical art restorer, Lego filmmaker creating Byzantine era films and videos, and a possible Renaissance man living in modern times but Byzantine at heart. Currently manages the Instagram account byzantine_time_traveller posting Byzantine history related content.

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